CFD Benchmark Tests for Indoor Environmental Problems: Part 1 Isothermal/Non-Isothermal Flow in 2D and 3D Room Model


Indoor environment
Computational Fluid Dynamics
Benchmark test
Isothermal flow
non-isothermal flow.

How to Cite

Kazuhide Ito, Kiao Inthavong, Takashi Kurabuchi, Toshikatsu Ueda, Tomoyuki Endo, Toshiaki Omori, Hiroki Ono, Shinsuke Kato, Koji Sakai, Yoshihide Suwa, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Hajime Yoshino, Weirong Zhang, Jiyuan Tu. CFD Benchmark Tests for Indoor Environmental Problems: Part 1 Isothermal/Non-Isothermal Flow in 2D and 3D Room Model. Int. J. Archit. Eng. Technol. [Internet]. 2015 Apr. 7 [cited 2023 Mar. 26];2(1):01-22. Available from:


Commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software have been applied in indoor environmental design in recent years, but the prediction accuracy depends on an understanding of fluid dynamics fundamentals, in setting appropriate boundary and numerical conditions. This study aims to provide practical modelling information related to prediction accuracy and problematic areas in CFD applications in air conditioning and ventilation, through a series of benchmark tests and reported the results. Six commercial CFD codes were evaluated while two benchmark test cases were performed on isothermal/non-isothermal flow in 2D and 3D room models. The influence of mesh design, and turbulence models showed that using a standard k-ε model on a coarse mesh could provide sufficiently accurate results for practical purposes, by reducing the relaxation coefficient. Evaluation using different CFD programs on a non-isothermal room airflow showed different performances in predicting temperature distributions. The OpenFOAM code showed the closest matching results between three codes tests.


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