Effects of Arrangement and Surface Roughness of Transverse Studs on Heat Transfer in Round Tubes


Heat transfer enhancement, transverse stud, Darcy friction factor, Nusselt number.

How to Cite

Jung-Yang San, Chih-Hsuan Li. Effects of Arrangement and Surface Roughness of Transverse Studs on Heat Transfer in Round Tubes. J. Adv. Therm. Sci. Res. [Internet]. 2017 Dec. 31 [cited 2022 May 21];4(1):5-12. Available from: https://www.avantipublishers.com/index.php/jatsr/article/view/860


 Four heat transfer enhancing tubes (tubes A – D) with transverse studs are fabricated and tested. The studs are regularly welded in the tubes at a pitch of 53.2 mm. The inner and outer diameters of the tubes are 13.3 and 17.3 mm, respectively. Tubes A, B and C use the same threaded studs (M4) as flow disturbing device, but the arrangements of the studs on the tube walls are different. Tube D adopts the same stud arrangement as tube A, but its studs are smooth instead of threaded. Air is the working fluid in the tubes. For the Reynolds number (Re) in the range of 4000 to 23000, fluid friction and heat transfer data of the four heat transfer enhancing tubes are measured and the results are compared with those of a smooth tube. The transverse studs are quite effective for enhancing the heat transfer in the tubes. Regardless of the Re value and stud arrangement, a twofold increase in the convection heat transfer coefficient can be achieved. It is also found that the stud arrangement and the stud surface roughness are insignificant to the heat transfer. A frequent variation in stud direction or a rough stud surface would result in an increase in pressure drop, instead of an increase in heat transfer.


Bergles AE. Principles of Heat Transfer Augmentation, Heat Exchangers, Thermal-Hydraulic Fundamentals and Design, Hemisphere: New York 1981.

Bergles AE. Heat Exchanger, in: Heat Exchanger Design Handbook—Part 1, Begell House: New York 1998.

Webb RL, Eckert ERG and Goldstein RJ. Heat transfer and friction in tubes with repeated-rib roughness. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 1971; 14(4): 601-617. https://doi.org/10.1016/0017-9310(71)90009-3

Gee DL and Webb RL. Forced convection heat transfer in helically rib-roughened tubes. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 1980; 23(8): 1127-1136. https://doi.org/10.1016/0017-9310(80)90177-5

Naphon P, Nuchjapo M and Kurujareon J. Tube side heat transfer coefficient and friction factor characteristics of horizontal tubes with helical rib, Energy Convers. Manage 2006; 47(18-19): 3031-3044. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2006.03.023

Ravigururajan TS and Bergles AE. Development and verification of general correlations for pressure drop and heat transfer in single-phase turbulent flow in enhanced tubes. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 1996; 13(1): 55-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/0894-1777(96)00014-3

San JY, Huang WC. Heat transfer enhancement of transverse ribs in circular tubes with consideration of entrance effect. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 2006; 49(17-18): 2965-2971. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2006.01.046

Huang WC, Chen CA, Shen C and San JY. Effects of characteristic parameters on heat transfer enhancement of repeated ring-type ribs in circular tubes, Exp. Thermal and Fluid Sci 2015; 68: 371-380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2015.06.007

Kim KM, Kim BS, Lee DH, Moon H and Cho HH. Optimal design of transverse ribs in tubes for thermal performance enhancement. Energy 2010; 35(6): 2400-2406. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2010.02.020

Uttarwar SB and Raja Rao M. Augmentation of laminar flow heat transfer in tubes by means of wire coil inserts, ASME J. Heat Transfer 1985; 107(4): 930-935. http://doi.org/10.1115/1.3247523

Sethumadhavan R and Raja Rao M. Turbulent flow heat transfer and fluid friction in helical-wire-coil-inserted tubes. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 1983; 26(12): 1833–1845. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0017-9310(83)80154-9

San JY, Huang WC and Chen CA. Experimental investigation on heat transfer and fluid friction correlations for circular tubes with coiled-wire inserts. Int Comm Heat Mass Transfer 2015; 65: 8-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2015.04.008

Junkhan GH, Bergles AE, Nirmalan V and Ravigururajan T. Investigation of turbulators for fire tube boilers, ASME J. Heat Transfer 1885; 107(2): 354-360. http://doi.org/10.1115/1.3247422

Bas H and Ozceyhan V. Heat transfer enhancement in a tube with twisted tape inserts placed separately from the tube wall, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci 2012; 41: 51-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2012.03.008

Promvonge P, Pethkool S, Pimsarn M and Thianpong C. Heat transfer augmentation in a helical-ribbed tube with double twisted tape inserts, Int. Comm. Heat Mass Transfer 2012; 39(7): 953-959. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2012.05.015

Rainieri S, Bozzoli F, Cattani L and Pagliarini G. Compound convective heat transfer enhancement in helically coiled wall corrugated tubes, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 2013; 59: 353-362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.12.037

Zimparov V. Enhancement of heat transfer by a combination of a single-start spirally corrugated tubes with a twisted tape. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 2002; 25(7): 535-546. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0894-1777(01)00112-1

Garcia A, Solano JP, Vicente PG and Viedma A. The influence of artificial roughness shape on heat transfer enhancement: Corrugated tubes, dimpled tubes and wire coils. Appl Therm Eng 2012; 35: 196-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2011.10.030

Huang CC and San JY. Boiling heat transfer characteristics in a horizontal tube with internal helical threads and that with a fin-module Insert. Int Comm Heat Mass Transfer 2013; 47: 62-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2013.07.007

Incropera FP, DeWitt DP, Bergman TL and Lavine AS. Foundations of Heat Transfer. 6th ed. John Wiley & Sons: Singapore 2013.

Kline SJ and McClintock FA. Describing uncertainties in single-sample experiments. Mech Eng 1953; 75: 3-8.