'Kilis yağlık' is the most common variety cultivated in the South-east region of Turkey and represents around 52% of the growing area. During the last few years new cultivars have been introduced in South regions being mostly the cultivar "Gemlik" without evaluating their behaviours in this environment. Unfortunately, it is now understood that this cultivar with good plantation characteristics did not adapt well to the environmental conditions of South Turkey. This has led to an increase in the need of research on traditional autochthonous cultivars. 'Kilis yağlık' although shows alternate; has a high yield of fruits. The aim of this work is was to study changes in virgin olive oil composition of 'Kilis yağlık' variety according to origin of plantation. Olives from this variety were collected in four characteristic and representative olive growing locations in South-east of Turkey. The analytical parameters studied were fatty acid composition, total phenolics, chlorophylls and carotenoids, free acidity, peroxide value, colour indexes and some individual phenolic compounds. The contents of some of the individual phenolics (tyrosol, hydroxyl tyrosol, oleuropein, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, 3-4 hydroxy benzoic acid, taxifolin, verbascoside, vanillic acid, luteolin, apigenin and rutin) were determined with a qualitative and quantitative analysis performed by HPLC-DAD.
FAO: Produ STAT FAOSTAT. https://faostat.fao.org. Accessed Jan 2008.
DIE (Statistical Institute of Turkey): Tarım İstatistikleri Özeti, Ankara, Türkiye, 2008.
Anonymous: Official Website of Turkish State Meteorological Service. http://www.meteor.gov.tr/2008/genel/iklim/turkiy eiklimi.htm.
EEC. European Union Commission. Regulation EEC/1429/92 amending Regulation EEC2568/91 on the characteristics of olive oil and olive residue oil and on the relevant methods of analysis. Off J Eur Comm L 1992; 150: 17-20.
IUPAC. Regulation no. 2432, Standard Methods for the analysis of oils, fat and derivatives. 1992, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK.
Stefanoudaki E, Kotsifaki F, Koutsaftakis A. Classification of virgin olive oils of the two major Cretan cultivars based on their fatty acid composition. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1999; 76: 623-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-999-0013-7
Minguez-Mosquera, MI, Rejano, L, Gandul B, Sẚnchez AH, Garrido J. Color-pigment correlation in virgin olive oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1991; 68: 332-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02657688
Pirisi FM, Cabras P, Cao CF, Migliorini M, Magelli M. Phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil 2. Reappraisal of the extraction. HPLC separation, and quantification procedures. J Agric Food Chem 2000; 48: 1191-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf991137f
Zolman J, Biostatistics. Experimental Design and Statistical Inference. Oxford University Press. Inc New York, USA 1993.
Dabbou S, Sifi S, Rjiba I, Esposto S, Taticchi A, Servili M, Montedoro GF, Hammami M. Effect of Pedoclimatic Conditions on the Chemical Composition of the Sigoise Olive Cultivar. Chem Biod 2010; 7: 898-08. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.200900215
Moyano MJ, Meléndez-Martínez AJ, Alba J, Heredia FJ. A comprehensive study on the colour of virgin olive oils and its relationship with their chlorophylls and carotenoids indexes (I): CIEXYZ non-uniform colour space. Food Res Int 2008; 41: 505-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2008.03.007
Ben Temime S, Taamalli W, Baccouri B, Abaza L, Daoud D, Zarrouk M. Changes in olive oil quality of Chétoui variety according to origin of plantation. J Food Lipids 2006; 13: 88- 99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4522.2006.00036.x
Kiritsakis AK, Markakis P. Olive oil: a review. Adv Food Res 1987; 31: 118-25.
Matos LC, Cunha SC, Amaral JS, Pereira JA, Andrade PB, Seabra RM, Oliveira BPP. Chemometric characterization of three varietal olive oils (Cvs. Cobrancosa, Madural and Verdeal transmontana) extracted from olives with different maturation indices. Food Chem 2007; 102: 406-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.12.031
Finotti E, Beye C, Nardo N, Quaglia GB, Milin C, Giacometti J. Physico-chemical characteristics of olives and olive oil from two mono-cultivars during various ripening phases. Nahrung/Food 2001; 45(5): 350-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1521- 3803(20011001)45:5<350::AID-FOOD350>3.0.CO;2-G
Salvador MD, Aranda F, Gomez-alonso S, Fregapane G. Cornicabra virgin olive oil: a study of five crop seasons. Composition, quality and oxidative stability. Food Chem 2001; 74: 267-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00148-0
Dabbou S, Issaoui M, Esposto S, Sifi S, Taticchi A, Servili M, Montedoro GF, Hammami M. Cultivar and growing area effects on minor compounds of olive oil from autochthonous and European introduced cultivars in Tunisia. J Sci Food Agric 2009; 89: 1314-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3588
Baccouri B, Zarrouk W, Krichene D, Nouari I, Ben Youssef N, Daoud D. Influence of fruit ripening and crop yield on chemical properties of virgin olive oils from seven selected oleasters (Olea europea L.). J Agron 2007; 6: 388-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ja.2007.388.396
Mousa MY, Gerosopoulos D, Metzidakis I, Kiritsakis A. Effect of altitude on fruit and quality characteristics of Mastoides olives. J Sci Food Agric 1996; 71: 345-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097- 0010(199607)71:3<345::AID-JSFA590>3.0.CO;2-T
Criado MN, Morello JR, Motilva MJ, Romero MP. Effect of growing area on pigment and phenolic fractions of virgin olive oils of the Arbequina variety in Spain. J Am Oil Chem Soc 2004; 81: 633-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-004-954-z
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2014 D. Arslan, M.M. Özcan