Global Journal of Agricultural Innovation, Research & Development https://www.avantipublishers.com/index.php/gjaird Global Journal of Agricultural Innovation, Research &amp; Development is a refereed academic journal encompassing advanced research results in agricultural field. Scholars from all over the world are invited to submit high-quality manuscripts that describe the latest, outstanding research results or innovations in aforementioned field. en-US cedric.camps@agroscope.admin.ch (Cédric Camps) muaaz@avantipublishers.com (Muaaz Ahmed) Tue, 01 Mar 2022 07:57:04 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.8 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Field Response of Tephritid Fruit Flies (Diptera) to Fruit Juice of Some Botanicals and Implications for Bio-Rationale Pest Management in Sudan https://www.avantipublishers.com/index.php/gjaird/article/view/1146 <p>Fruit flies belonging to the order Tephritidae are the most notorious pests that attack various fruit and vegetable species, causing severe economic losses. Guava orchards at Elfaki Hashim; North of Khartoum, (Khartoum State) and Elsawagi Elgenobia (Kassala State) in the middle and east of Sudan respectively were selected to assess the response of some Tephritids to water extracts (WE) of mango, guava, apple, cucumber, and ready-made juice of mango (Crystal<sup>®</sup>; Crystal Industrial Co. Ltd, Araak Group; <a href="https://avantipublishers.com/jms/index.php/gjaird/workflow/index/1146/5/mailto:crystal@araak.com">crystal@araak.com</a>) against Torula yeast (a standard fruit fly attractant) and water (control) baited in locally made traps. The trial was performed as Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated 3 times for 5 consecutive weeks at each site. Highly significant differences were recorded between attractants and the interaction between attractants and times (weeks) on trapping different species of fruit flies. Five species of fruit flies; <em>Ceratitis capitata</em>, <em>Bactrocera dorsalis</em>, <em>Zeugodacus cucurbitae</em>, <em>Ceratitis cosyra,</em> and <em>Ceratitis quinaria</em>, were found to respond positively to all tested materials at both sites<em>.</em> The greatest number of <em>C. capitata</em> flies was caught by traps equipped with ready-made Crystal<sup>®</sup> mango juice at the Elfaki Hashim site. The mean number of <em>B. dorsalis </em>attracted to the WEs of mango and guava at Elsawagi Elgenobia site was statistically identical to that of the same species lured to Torula yeast, 83.7, 70.3, and 111.5 flies /trap/week, respectively. Attractants extracted from botanicals are cost-free and easily prepared by farmers for mass trapping of fruit flies. More studies regarding active ingredients, doses, and the number of traps utilized per area should be considered.</p> Mohammed E. E. Mahmoud, Mohamed A. Kambal, Sumaia M. Abukashwaa, Samira A. Mohammed, Sunday Ekesi Copyright (c) 2022 Mohammed E. E. Mahmoud, Mohamed A. Kambal, Sumaia M. Abukashwaa, Samira A. Mohammed, Sunday Ekesi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.avantipublishers.com/index.php/gjaird/article/view/1146 Tue, 01 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Vertical Tillage Technology for Primary Soil Preparation https://www.avantipublishers.com/index.php/gjaird/article/view/1193 <p>In the last decade in Mexico and other developing countries, soil preparation is the agricultural activity that represents the highest costs per unit of production, due to factors such as lack of appropriate equipment, excessive tillage, high consumption of fossil fuel, lack of knowledge and training for the adequate soil management, among others.</p> <p>The purpose of this research was to develop a vertical tillage technology that allows primary soil preparation without investment and reduces fuel consumption and effective operating time, improves labor quality and conserves soil and water resources. For this, a chisel plow prototype was developed based on four vertical tillage parameters: (1. Working depth 2. Number of bodies 3. Spacing between chisels 4. Use of wings or sweepers). These parameters determined the criteria and dimensions of the prototype for its development in design parameters such as spacing, position, angle of attack and depth of work.</p> <p>The performance evaluation of the prototype was compared with the disc plow; an implement that served as a witness as it was the most widely used technology. The standardized test method was used by the National Center for Standardization of Agricultural Machinery "CENEMA". The results obtained show a prototype plow with five chisels mounted on a double platform frame. The front platform is used for the coupling of three shallow chisels and the rear one, for the coupling of two deep chisels with wings. The implement adjusts for two working depths 0.30 and 0.40 meters and two working widths 1.80 m and 2.40 m respectively. The performance evaluation showed that vertical tillage with the chisel plow prototype in its two treatments showed an average saving of more than 45% in the fuel consumption variable and 53% in the effective working time compared to conventional tillage used with a disc plow. In terms of quality of work, vertical tillage shows high performance in soil disturbance, exceeding up to 65% of the work done by conventional tillage. Finally, it is concluded that the proposed technology should be used as technological innovation and replace the conventional disk plow technology, given its technological, economic and environmental advantages.</p> M. A. Reynolds Chávez, A. Capetillo Burela, M. Cadena Zapata, J. A. López López, R. Zetina Lezama Copyright (c) 2022 M.A. Reynolds Chávez, A. Capetillo Burela, M. Cadena Zapata, J.A. López López, R. Zetina Lezama https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.avantipublishers.com/index.php/gjaird/article/view/1193 Fri, 11 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Land Tenure on Agroforestry Parkland Phyto-Diversity and Stand Structure in Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso, West Africa https://www.avantipublishers.com/index.php/gjaird/article/view/1174 <p>Savanna Zone of Burkina Faso is characterized by the increasing population growth due to human migration from the north and central regions of the country for cultivating agricultural land and pastures. This situation induced land-use changes, and social reorganization has led to new approaches to natural resources management. Tenure issues in natural resources management limit the adoption of agroforestry systems and effective land use scale. This paper describes the species composition, structure, and diversity of woody species on agroforestry parklands at Tiogo under two types of land tenures. Ecological and structural characteristics of vegetation patches were computed to characterize the species composition. A variety of diversity measures were calculated to determine the heterogeneity for each type of land tenure. A total of 49 woody species belonging to 19 families and 38 genera were identified, of which 44 and 48 species were recorded in non-landowners’ farms and landowners' farms, respectively. Leguminosae, Combretaceae and Anacardiaceae were the most abundant families. The dominant species in agroforestry parklands were <em>Vitellaria paradoxa, Parkia biglobosa, Lannea microcarpa, Piliostigma reticulatum </em>and<em> Piliostigma thonningii.</em> Analyses of variance of the entire woody vegetation of agroforestry parklands revealed no significant differences in terms of all computed indexes but showed that the landowners’ farms were the most diverse than non-landowners farms. The density of stems ≥5 cm dbh and the basal area were higher in landowner’s farms than in non-landowners farms. In both types of farms, the size class distributions of the vegetation produced a reverse J-shaped curve, supporting that agroforestry parkland in Tiogo is dominated by young individuals. The spatial distribution of the seedling was mainly clumped, reflecting the dominance of clonal propagation. Security of land and tree tenure is a necessary condition for any land-based investment (planting and protection of preferred species and soil amendment). The challenge to maintain parklands’ tree biodiversity in “good” condition also needs to consider the flexibility of land tenure and equitability sharing of the benefits from trees.</p> Lassina Sanou, Jonas Koala, Souleymane Ouédraogo, Brama Ouattara Copyright (c) 2022 Lassina Sanou, Jonas Koala, Souleymane Ouédraogo, Brama Ouattara https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.avantipublishers.com/index.php/gjaird/article/view/1174 Fri, 11 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of Management Interventions to the Impacts of Prosopis juliflora in Arid and Semiarid Regions of the Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia https://www.avantipublishers.com/index.php/gjaird/article/view/1220 <p>The objective of this paper is to provide up-to-date empirical information on the expansion of <em>P. juliflora</em>, its environmental and livelihood impacts, and the performance of past and current management strategies in the Middle Awash Valley (MAV), Ethiopia. This study was based on data collected using focus group discussion, key informant interviews, and field observation. The results show that <em>P. juliflora</em> has expanded rapidly and invaded valuable grazing and croplands, and settlement areas. The rapid expansion of <em>P. juliflora</em> in the study area is attributed to climate change (increased temperature and declined rainfall), its ecological competition, spreading of seeds by wild animals and pastoral (mobile livestock) livelihood system, and recent occurrences of flood and drought-induced pasture scarcity that has forced livestock to eat more <em>P. juliflora</em> seed pods. Also, delays in the use of land cleared for farming activity have created good opportunities for Prosopis expansion. The perception and views of people on the benefits of <em>P. juliflora</em> and management options vary according to livelihood systems and stakeholder types (e.g., environmental managers and pastoralists). The attempted management strategies to eradicate <em>P. juliflora</em> (cutting, burning, and bulldozering or converting into economic utilization by making charcoal, fodder, and furniture) failed to achieve the intended outcomes. These management interventions failed due to many reasons. Some of these were the rapid rate of <em>P. juliflora</em> expansion triggered by the recurrent drought, severe scarcity of pasture that forced livestock to eat <em>P. juliflora</em>’s seed pods and travel into new areas, inadequate technologies to aid utilization and eradication, inability to collect sufficient quantity of pods to produce fodder for livestock, and absence of sufficient and satisfactory markets for the end-product (fodder). The results generally imply the need for urgent policy and management interventions. This study also highlights important issues that should be considered in introducing and implementing management strategies in the future.</p> Mekonnen Adnew Degefu, Mohammed Assen, Roger Few, Mark Tebboth Copyright (c) 2022 Mekonnen Adnew Degefu, Mohammed Assen, Roger Few, Mark Tebboth https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.avantipublishers.com/index.php/gjaird/article/view/1220 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular Characterization of Mutations in Anticarsia gemmatalis Cadherin Gene and their Relation to Bacillus thurigiensis Resistance https://www.avantipublishers.com/index.php/gjaird/article/view/1217 <p><em>Anticarsia</em> <em>gemmatalis</em> Hübner, 1818 is the main soybean defoliating pest in Brazil. The biological control of the species is done with products based on toxins produced by <em>Bacillus</em> <em>thurigiensis</em> (<em>Bt</em>), as bioinsecticides, or in transgenic plants. After activation by intestinal proteases, these toxins interact with receptors, especially cadherin, leading to death due to the formation of cellular pores. In recent years resistant populations have been identified in the laboratory, which can be a problem if the same patterns are found in crops, reducing their control effect. In this paper, we performed a comparative structural analysis of a mutation region for the gene of this receptor in <em>A</em>. <em>gemmatalis</em>, among resistant and susceptible strains treated with a toxin produced by <em>Bt</em> (Cry1Ac). The HaCad fragment of the cadherin gene was amplified by PCR, sequenced, and analyzed by bioinformatics tools. The PCR results were positive for resistant specimens but not for susceptible strains, suggesting the presence of a mutation in the resistant strain. In the sequenced fragments of the resistant insects, six haplotypes were found, and the originated amino acid sequences demonstrated the modification in four sites, which did not interfere with the three-dimensional shape of the protein. These data showed considerable variation taking into account the size of the fragment, even if they do not affect the final structure of the protein. The results allowed a better understanding of the mechanisms of resistance to Cry1Ac in the species, mainly in the involvement of cadherin in this process.</p> Felipe Cordeiro Dias, Jaqueline Fernanda Dionísio, Daniel Ricardo Sosa-Gómez, Renata da Rosa Copyright (c) 2022 Felipe Cordeiro Dias, Jaqueline Fernanda Dionísio, Daniel Ricardo Sosa-Gómez, Renata da Rosa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.avantipublishers.com/index.php/gjaird/article/view/1217 Thu, 28 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000