Utilizing Chickpea Isolates as a Fortificant to Develop Protein-Dense Yogurt: A Review


Public health
Protein extract
Chickpea isolates

How to Cite

Arya N, Kumar R. Utilizing Chickpea Isolates as a Fortificant to Develop Protein-Dense Yogurt: A Review. Glob. J. Agric. Innov. Res. Dev [Internet]. 2022 Jul. 20 [cited 2023 Jan. 28];9:61-80. Available from: https://www.avantipublishers.com/index.php/gjaird/article/view/1257


Pulses and dairy products are recognized for their nutritional and functional benefits and are consumed in various forms. Yogurt is considered a source of good quality protein with anti-carcinogenic, hypocholesterolemic properties, and palliating effects on lactose intolerance. Similarly, chickpea is known for its high protein content, low glycemic index, and hypoglycaemic effects. These food ingredients cater to numerous advantages for human health and can address public health issues related to malnutrition or other nutritional deficiencies. With this background, the manuscript explores the possibility of employing chickpea isolates to fortify yogurt to improvise protein content along with sensory and physicochemical properties. So far, the literature has shown that protein extracts, when added to yogurt, result in gaining protein content and overall product quality. The yogurt market is growing, and consumers from different countries have expressed their willingness to purchase fortified yogurts to achieve optimum health. Therefore, developing a new combination of yogurt and chickpea isolates can provide a therapeutic alternative to enhance the nutritional status of the vulnerable population, viz. children, pregnant, lactating mothers, elderly, sportsperson, etc., when a judicious food intake is a must.



FAOSTAT [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2022 Jan 13]. Available from: https: //www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QCL

Agricultural statistics at a Glance, 2020.pdf [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jan 17]. Available from: https: //foodprocessingindia.gov.in/uploads/publication/Agricultural-statistics-at-a-Glance-2020.pdf

Maheri-Sis N, Chamani M, Ali-Asghar S, Mirza-Aghazadeh A, Aghajanzadeh-Golshani A. Nutritional evaluation of kabuli and desi type chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) for ruminants using in vitro gas production technique. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008; 7(16).

Geervani P. Utilization of chickpea in India and scope for novel and alternative uses. Uses of Tropical Grain Legumes. 1989; 27: 47.

Sharma S, Yadav N, Singh A, Kumar R. Nutritional and antinutritional profile of newly developed chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) varieties. International Food Research Journal. 2013a; 20(2).

Sharma S, Yadav N, Singh A, Kumar R. Antioxidant activity, nuetraceutical profile and health relevant functionality of nine newly developed chickpea cultivars (Cicer arietinum L.). Int J Nat Prod Res. 2013b; 3: 44-53.

Rao PS. Studies on the digestibility of carbohydrates in pulses. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 1969; 57: 2151-7.

Shurpalekar KS, Sundaravalli OE, Rao MN. " In vitro" and" in vivo" digestibility of legume carbohydrates. Nutrition Reports International (USA). 1979;

Misra JP, Yadav A. Vaishali and Kumar, R. Bio-chemical characterization of chickpea genotypes with special reference to protein. Res J Chem Environ. 2016; 20(8): 38-43.

Singh U. Nutritional quality of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): current status and future research needs. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 1985; 35(4): 339-51. https: //doi.org/10.1007/BF01091779

Murthy NK, Annapurani S, Premjothi P, Rajah J, Shubha K. Bioavailability of Iron by'Invitro Method'-I-from Selected Foods and Effect of Fortification, Promotors and Inhibitors. The Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics. 1985; 22(3): 68-72.

Rozenberg S, Body JJ, Bruyere O, Bergmann P, Brandi ML, Cooper C, et al. Effects of dairy products consumption on health: benefits and beliefs-a commentary from the Belgian Bone Club and the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases. Calcified tissue international. 2016; 98(1): 1-17. https: //doi.org/10.1007/s00223-015-0062-x

Wang H, Livingston KA, Fox CS, Meigs JB, Jacques PF. Yogurt consumption is associated with better diet quality and metabolic profile in American men and women. Nutrition Research. 2013; 33(1): 18-26. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2012.11.009

Salehi F. Quality, physicochemical, and textural properties of dairy products containing fruits and vegetables: A review. Food Science & Nutrition. 2021; 9(8): 4666-86. https: //doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2430

Milner JA. Functional foods: the US perspective. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2000; 71(6): 1654S-1659S. https: //doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/71.6.1654S

Jukanti AK, Gaur PM, Gowda CLL, Chibbar RN. Nutritional quality and health benefits of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): a review. British Journal of Nutrition. 2012; 108(S1): S11-26. https: //doi.org/10.1017/S0007114512000797

Sharma S, Singh A, Sharma U, Kumar R, Yadav N. Effect of thermal processing on anti nutritional factors and in vitro bioavailability of minerals in desi and kabuli cultivars of chick pea grown in North India. Legume Research-An International Journal. 2018; 41(2): 267-74. https: //doi.org/10.18805/LR-3708

Ramani A, Kushwaha R, Malaviya R, Kumar R, Yadav N. Molecular, functional and nutritional properties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) protein isolates prepared by modified solubilization methods. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization. 2021a; 15(3): 2352-68. https: //doi.org/10.1007/s11694-020-00778-6

Duranti M. Grain legume proteins and nutraceutical properties. Fitoterapia. 2006; 77(2): 67-82. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2005.11.008

Kendall CW, Emam A, Augustin LS, Jenkins DJ. Resistant starches and health. Journal of AOAC international. 2004; 87(3): 769-74. https: //doi.org/10.1093/jaoac/87.3.769

Osorio-Díaz P, Agama-Acevedo E, Mendoza-Vinalay M, Tovar J, Bello-Pérez LA. Pasta added with chickpea flour: Chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index. Ciencia y Tecnologia Alimentaria. 2008; 6-12. https: //doi.org/10.1080/11358120809487621

Regina A, Bird A, Topping D, Bowden S, Freeman J, Barsby T, et al. High-amylose wheat generated by RNA interference improves indices of large-bowel health in rats. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2006; 103(10): 3546-51. https: //doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0510737103

Dilawari JB, Kamath PS, Batta RP, Mukewar S, Raghavan S. Reduction of postprandial plasma glucose by Bengal gram dal (Cicer arietinum) and rajmah (Phaseolus vulgaris). The American journal of clinical nutrition. 1981; 34(11): 2450-3. https: //doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/34.11.2450

Cummings JH, Stephen AM, Branch WJ. Implications of dietary fiber breakdown in the human colon. Banbury Report (USA). 1981;

Fernando W, Hill J, Zello G, Tyler R, Dahl W, Van Kessel A. Diets supplemented with chickpea or its main oligosaccharide component raffinose modify faecal microbial composition in healthy adults. Beneficial microbes. 2010; 1(2): 197-207. https: //doi.org/10.3920/BM2009.0027

Mathers JC. Pulses and carcinogenesis: potential for the prevention of colon, breast and other cancers. British Journal of Nutrition. 2002; 88(S3): 273-9. https: //doi.org/10.1079/BJN2002717

Yang Y, Zhou L, Gu Y, Zhang Y, Tang J, Li F, et al. Dietary chickpeas reverse visceral adiposity, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance in rats induced by a chronic high-fat diet. British Journal of Nutrition. 2007; 98(4): 720-6. https: //doi.org/10.1017/S0007114507750870

Sastry TCS, Kavathekar KY. Plants for reclamation of wastelands. 1990;

Gur J, Mawuntu M, Martirosyan D. FFC's advancement of functional food definition. Functional Foods in Health and Disease. 2018; 8(7): 385-97. https: //doi.org/10.31989/ffhd.v8i7.531

Sarkar S, Sur A, Sarkar K, Majhi R, Basu S, Chatterjee K, et al. Probiotics: A way of value addition in functional food. Int J Food Sci Nutr Diet. 2016; 5: 290-3.

Sarkar S. Probiotics as functional foods: documented health benefits. Nutrition & Food Science. 2013; https: //doi.org/10.1108/00346651311313445

Salas-Salvadó J, Guasch-Ferre M, Díaz-López A, Babio N. Yogurt and diabetes: overview of recent observational studies. The Journal of nutrition. 2017; 147(7): 1452S-1461S. https: //doi.org/10.3945/jn.117.248229

Wu L, Sun D. Consumption of yogurt and the incident risk of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of nine cohort studies. Nutrients. 2017; 9(3): 315. https: //doi.org/10.3390/nu9030315

Chen M, Pan A, Malik VS, Hu FB. Effects of dairy intake on body weight and fat: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2012; 96(4): 735-47. https: //doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.037119

Eales J, Lenoir-Wijnkoop I, King S, Wood H, Kok FJ, Shamir R, et al. Is consuming yoghurt associated with weight management outcomes? Results from a systematic review. International Journal of Obesity. 2016; 40(5): 731-46. https: //doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2015.202

Donovan SM, Rao G. Health benefits of yogurt among infants and toddlers aged 4 to 24 months: a systematic review. Nutrition reviews. 2019; 77(7): 478-86. https: //doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuz009

Savaiano DA. Lactose digestion from yogurt: mechanism and relevance. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2014; 99(5): 1251S-1255S. https: //doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.113.073023

Sarkar S. Potentiality of probiotic yoghurt as a functional food-a review. Nutrition & Food Science. 2019; https: //doi.org/10.1108/NFS-05-2018-0139

Yadav SS, Longnecker N, Dusunceli F, Bejiga G, Yadav M, Rizvi AH, et al. Uses, consumption and utilization. Chickpea Breeding and Management. 2007; 101-42.

John AT, Makkar S, Swaminathan S, Minocha S, Webb P, Kurpad AV, et al. Factors influencing household pulse consumption in India: A multilevel model analysis. Global food security. 2021; 29: 100534. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2021.100534

Rampal P. An analysis of protein consumption in India through plant and animal sources. Food and nutrition bulletin. 2018; 39(4): 564-80. https: //doi.org/10.1177/0379572118810104

Vieira EDF, Gomes AM, Gil AM, Vasconcelos MW. Pulses' benefits in children's diets: a narrative review. J Obes Chronic Dis. 2021; 5(1): 1-3.

Beckerman-Hsu JP, Kim R, Sharma S, Subramanian SV. Dietary Variation among Children Meeting and Not Meeting Minimum Dietary Diversity: An Empirical Investigation of Food Group Consumption Patterns among 73,036 Children in India. The Journal of Nutrition. 2020; 150(10): 2818-24. https: //doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa223

Granato D, Branco GF, Cruz AG, Faria J de AF, Shah NP. Probiotic dairy products as functional foods. Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety. 2010; 9(5): 455-70. https: //doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00120.x

Bigliardi B, Galati F. Innovation trends in the food industry: the case of functional foods. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2013; 31(2): 118-29. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2013.03.006

Allgeyer LC, Miller MJ, Lee SY. Sensory and microbiological quality of yogurt drinks with prebiotics and probiotics. Journal of dairy science. 2010; 93(10): 4471-9. https: //doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2582

El-Abbadi NH, Dao MC, Meydani SN. Yogurt: role in healthy and active aging. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2014; 99(5): 1263S-1270S. https: //doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.113.073957

Ghanem KZ, Badawy IH, Abdel-Salam AM. Influence of yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt on the absorption of calcium, magnesium, iron and bone mineralization in rats. Milchwissenschaft. 2004; 59(9-10): 472-5.

Schieber A. Functional foods and nutraceuticals. Food Research International. 2012; 46(2). https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2012.02.009

Thompson AK, Moughan PJ. Innovation in the foods industry: Functional foods. Innovation. 2008; 10(1): 61-73. https: //doi.org/10.5172/impp.453.10.1.61

Saini RD. Chemistry of functional foods and their role in disease control. International Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry. 2017; 13(2): 191-203.

Withana‐Gamage TS, Wanasundara JP, Pietrasik Z, Shand PJ. Physicochemical, thermal and functional characterisation of protein isolates from Kabuli and Desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): A comparative study with soy (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum L.). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2011; 91(6): 1022-31. https: //doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4277

Sharma S, Yadav N, Singh A, Kaur D, Kumar R. Impact of thermal and bioprocessing on antioxidant and functional properties of nine newly developed desi and kabili chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars. Vegetos. 2016; 29: 78-86. https: //doi.org/10.5958/2229-4473.2016.00040.9

Xu Y, Obielodan M, Sismour E, Arnett A, Alzahrani S, Zhang B. Physicochemical, functional, thermal and structural properties of isolated Kabuli chickpea proteins as affected by processing approaches. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 2017; 52(5): 1147-54. https: //doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.13400

Kumar R, Singh RK, Misra JP, Yadav A, Kumar, A., Yadav, R, et al. Dissecting Proteomic Estimates for Enhanced Bioavailable Nutrition during Varied Stages of Germination and Identification of Potential Genotypes in Chickpea. Legume Research-An International Journal. 2021; 1: 6. https: //doi.org/10.18805/LR-4531

Schutyser MAI, Pelgrom PJM, Van der Goot AJ, Boom RM. Dry fractionation for sustainable production of functional legume protein concentrates. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2015; 45(2): 327-35. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2015.04.013

Han XZ, Hamaker BR. Partial leaching of granule‐associated proteins from rice starch during alkaline extraction and subsequent gelatinization. Starch‐Stärke. 2002; 54(10): 454-60. https: //doi.org/10.1002/1521-379X(200210)54: 10<454: : AID-STAR454>3.0.CO; 2-M

Karaca AC, Low N, Nickerson M. Emulsifying properties of chickpea, faba bean, lentil and pea proteins produced by isoelectric precipitation and salt extraction. Food Research International. 2011; 44(9): 2742-50. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.06.012

Ramani A, Singh D, Puranik V, Kumar R, Yadav N. Process optimization of chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.) seed protein isolates for functional foods. Research Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 2021b; 16: 2.

Chau CF, Cheung PC, Wong YS. Functional properties of protein concentrates from three Chinese indigenous legume seeds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1997; 45(7): 2500-3. https: //doi.org/10.1021/jf970047c

Sanjeewa WT, Wanasundara JP, Pietrasik Z, Shand PJ. Characterization of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) flours and application in low-fat pork bologna as a model system. Food Research International. 2010; 43(2): 617-26. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.07.024

Avanza MV, Chaves MG, Acevedo BA, Añón MC. Functional properties and microstructure of cowpea cultivated in north-east Argentina. LWT. 2012; 49(1): 123-30. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.04.015

El Sohaimy SA, Brennan MA, Darwish AM, Brennan CS. Chickpea protein isolation, characterization and application in muffin enrichment. International Journal of Food Studies. 2021; 10. https: //doi.org/10.7455/ijfs/10.SI.2021.a5

Singhal A, Karaca AC, Tyler R, Nickerson M. Pulse proteins: From processing to structure-function relationships. Grain legumes. 2016; 55. https: //doi.org/10.5772/64020

Heineman PG. Milk. 682 pp. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co; 1921.

Nagaoka S. Yogurt production. In: Lactic acid bacteria. Springer; 2019. p. 45-54. https: //doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-8907-2_5

Soukoulis C, Panagiotidis P, Koureli R, Tzia C. Industrial yogurt manufacture: monitoring of fermentation process and improvement of final product quality. Journal of dairy science. 2007; 90(6): 2641-54. https: //doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-802

Sfakianakis P, Tzia C. Conventional and innovative processing of milk for yogurt manufacture; development of texture and flavor: A review. Foods. 2014; 3(1): 176-93. https: //doi.org/10.3390/foods3010176

Grigorov H. Effect of various types of heat processing of cow's milk on the duration of the coagulation process and on the pH and acidometric titration values of Bulgarian sour milk (yoghurt). In: Proceedings, 17th International Dairy Congress, München. 1966. p. 643-7.

Savello PA, Dargan RA. Reduced yogurt syneresis using ultrafiltration and very-high temperature heating. Milchwissenschaft. 1997; 52(10): 573-7.

Pette JW, Lolkema H. Firmness and Whey Separation of Milk Yoghurt. neth milk dairy j. 1951; 5: 27.

Ciron CIE, Gee VL, Kelly AL, Auty MAE. Comparison of the effects of high-pressure microfluidization and conventional homogenization of milk on particle size, water retention and texture of non-fat and low-fat yoghurts. International Dairy Journal. 2010; 20(5): 314-20. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2009.11.018

Ciron CIE, Gee VL, Kelly AL, Auty MA. Modifying the microstructure of low-fat yoghurt by microfluidisation of milk at different pressures to enhance rheological and sensory properties. Food Chemistry. 2012; 130(3): 510-9. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.07.056

Amul Sagar Smp | Amul - The Taste Of India : : Amul - The Taste of India [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jun 21]. Available from: https: //amul.com/products/amul-sagarsmp-info.php

Skimmed Milk Powder [Internet]. indiamart.com. [cited 2022 Jun 21]. Available from: https: //www.indiamart.com/proddetail/skimmed-milk-powder-22668436391.html

Chickpea Protein Powder [Internet]. indiamart.com. [cited 2022 Jun 21]. Available from: https: //www.indiamart.com/proddetail/chickpea-protein-powder-15653115088.html

Iqbal A, Khalil IA, Ateeq N, Sayyar Khan M. Nutritional quality of important food legumes. Food Chemistry. 2006 Jul; 97(2): 331-5. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.05.011

Chang L, Lan Y, Bandillo N, Ohm JB, Chen B, Rao J. Plant proteins from green pea and chickpea: Extraction, fractionation, structural characterization and functional properties. Food Hydrocolloids. 2022 Feb; 123: 107165. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2021.107165

Wang X, Gao W, Zhang J, Zhang H, Li J, He X, et al. Subunit, amino acid composition and in vitro digestibility of protein isolates from Chinese kabuli and desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars. Food Research International. 2010 Mar; 43(2): 567-72. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.07.018

Nagib AI, El-Hadidy EM, Shaker ES. Preparation and evaluation of yoghurt produced using sweet lupine, chickpea flour and their derivatives. Fayoum Journal of Agricultural Research and Development. 2006; 20(1): 1-8.

Pahariya P. Effects of Yogurt Fortification With Different Legumes Protein on the Physio-Chemical, Microbiological, and Rheological Properties. South Dakota State University; 2018.

Wang C, Yin H, Zhao Y, Zheng Y, Xu X, Yue J. Optimization of High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatments on Soybean Protein Isolate to Improve Its Functionality and Evaluation of Its Application in Yogurt. Foods. 2021; 10(3): 667. https: //doi.org/10.3390/foods10030667

Pham TT, Shah NP. Performance of starter in yogurt supplemented with soy protein isolate and biotransformation of isoflavones during storage period. Journal of food science. 2009; 74(4): M190-5. https: //doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01141.x

Guzeler N, Ari E, Özbek Ç. Some properties of fermented milk product which was produced from different milk types by using chickpea. Annals of the University of Craiova-Agriculture, Montanology, Cadastre Series. 2018; 47(2): 156-62.

Guzeler N, Ari E, Konuray G, Ozbek C. Physicochemical and microbiological properties of kefir, kefir yogurt and chickpea yogurt. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Engineering. 2019; 13(7): 189-92.

Raza H, Ameer K, Zaaboul F, Shoaib M, Zhao CC, Ali B, et al. Physicochemical, Rheological, & Sensory Characteristics of Yogurt Fortified with Ball-Milled Roasted Chickpea Powder (Cicer arietinum L.). Food Science and Technology. 2021; https: //doi.org/10.1590/fst.61020

Sidhu MK, Lyu F, Sharkie TP, Ajlouni S, Ranadheera CS. Probiotic Yogurt Fortified with Chickpea Flour: Physico-Chemical Properties and Probiotic Survival during Storage and Simulated Gastrointestinal Transit. Foods. 2020; 9(9): 1144. https: //doi.org/10.3390/foods9091144

Chen X, Singh M, Bhargava K, Ramanathan R. Yogurt fortification with chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour: Physicochemical and sensory effects. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 2018; 95(8): 1041-8. https: //doi.org/10.1002/aocs.12102

Hussein H, Awad S, El-Sayed I, Ibrahim A. Impact of chickpea as prebiotic, antioxidant and thickener agent of stirred bio-yoghurt. Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2020; 65(1): 49-58. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.aoas.2020.03.001

Chowdhury S, Meenakshi JV, Tomlins KI, Owori C. Are consumers in developing countries willing to pay more for micronutrient‐dense biofortified foods? Evidence from a field experiment in Uganda. American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 2011; 93(1): 83-97. https: //doi.org/10.1093/ajae/aaq121

De Groote H, Kimenju SC, Morawetz UB. Estimating consumer willingness to pay for food quality with experimental auctions: the case of yellow versus fortified maize meal in Kenya. Agricultural Economics. 2011; 42(1): 1-16. https: //doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-0862.2010.00466.x

De Steur H, Gellynck X, Feng S, Rutsaert P, Verbeke W. Determinants of willingness-to-pay for GM rice with health benefits in a high-risk region: Evidence from experimental auctions for folate biofortified rice in China. Food Quality and Preference. 2012; 25(2): 87-94. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2012.02.001

Agnew J, Henson S, Cao Y. Are Low-Income Consumers Willing to Pay for Fortification of a Commercially Produced Yogurt in Bangladesh. Food and nutrition bulletin. 2020; 41(1): 102-20. https: //doi.org/10.1177/0379572119895860

Drake MA, Gerard PD. Consumer attitudes and acceptability of soy‐fortified yogurts. Journal of food science. 2003; 68(3): 1118-22. https: //doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2003.tb08297.x

Donkor ON, Henriksson A, Vasiljevic T, Shah NP. Rheological Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Set-Type Soy Yogurt. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Nov 1; 55(24): 9868-76. https: //doi.org/10.1021/jf071050r

Mårtensson O, Andersson C, Andersson K, Öste R, Holst O. Formulation of an oat‐based fermented product and its comparison with yoghurt. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2001; 81(14): 1314-21. https: //doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.947

Fávaro Trindade CS, Terzi SC, Trugo LC, Della Modesta RC, Couri S. Development and sensory evaluation of soy milk based yoghurt. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición. 2001 Mar; 51(1): 100-4.

Isanga J, Zhang G. Production and evaluation of some physicochemical parameters of peanut milk yoghurt. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 2009; 42(6): 1132-8. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2009.01.014

Supavititpatana P, Wirjantoro TI, Raviyan P. Characteristics and shelf-life of corn milk yogurt. Journal of Natural Science. 2010; 9(1): 133-47.

Rita ES. Promotion of coconut in the production of yoghurt. African Journal of Food Science. 2009; 3(5): 147-9.

Yilmaz-Ersan L, Topcuoglu E. Evaluation of instrumental and sensory measurements using multivariate analysis in probiotic yogurt enriched with almond milk. Journal of food science and technology. 2022; 59(1): 133-43. https: //doi.org/10.1007/s13197-021-04994-w

Fatima SM, Hekmat S. Microbial and sensory analysis of soy and cow milk-based yogurt as a probiotic matrix for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1. Fermentation. 2020; 6(3): 74. https: //doi.org/10.3390/fermentation6030074

Kim Yeon Si, Hyeonbin O, Lee Phyrim, Kim Young-Soon. The quality characteristics, antioxidant activity, and sensory evaluation of reduced-fat yogurt and nonfat yogurt supplemented with basil seed gum as a fat substitute | Elsevier Enhanced Reader. Journal of Dairy Science [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2022 Jun 22]; 103.2. Available from: https: //reader.elsevier.com/reader/sd/pii/S0022030219310549?token=7A43368D0C917EC47FC0C7E9421936AB48A6C9EAFA428716424917B7A3825454148BEF0ED86CCD686FBB1CD5DAF49219&originRegion=eu-west-1&originCreation=20220622100735

Salvador A, Fiszman SM. Textural and sensory characteristics of whole and skimmed flavored set-type yogurt during long storage. Journal of dairy Science. 2004; 87(12): 4033-41. https: //doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73544-4

Lanou AJ. Should dairy be recommended as part of a healthy vegetarian diet? Counterpoint. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2009; 89(5): 1638S-1642S. https: //doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736P

Global Hunger Index (GHI) [Internet]. Global Hunger Index (GHI) - peer-reviewed annual publication designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger at the global, regional, and country levels. 2021 [cited 2022 Jan 12]. Available from: https: //www.globalhungerindex.org/india.html

National Health Mission, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare. National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-5 [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2022 Jul 12]. Available from: https: //dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR375/FR375.pdf

Ministry of Health & Family Welfare. National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-4 [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2022 Jul 12]. Available from: https: //dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR339/FR339.pdf

Saxena NC. Hunger, under-nutrition and food security in India. In: Poverty, chronic poverty and poverty dynamics. Springer; 2018. p. 55-92. https: //doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-0677-8_4

Maurya N, Kushwaha R, Arya DP. National Nutrition Programmes in India. In 2018. p. 21-35. https: //doi.org/10.5005/jp/books/13071_4

Community-based management of severe acute malnutrition: a joint statement by the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, the United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition and the United Nations Children's Fund. 2007;

Sinha RK, Dua R, Kumar P, Kumar V. Protocol of the cost effectiveness analysis of a cmam intervention with children in India. Journal of Disease and Global Health. 2018; 84-92.

Kumar P, Sinha RK, Daniel A, Shah H, Sriswan R, Kokane A, et al. Effectiveness of community-based treatment programs for treatment of uncomplicated severe acute malnourished children aged 6-59 months using locally produced nutrient dense foods: protocol for a multicentric longitudinal quasi-experimental study. BMC nutrition. 2021; 7(1): 1-9. https: //doi.org/10.1186/s40795-021-00489-1

Bhagwat S, Sankar R, Joseph L, Sivaranjani MA. Improving the nutrition quality of the school feeding program (Mid-Day Meal) in India through fortification: a case study. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition. 2014; 23(1): S12.

World Food Programme. Endline Assessment of Fortification of Mid-Day Meal Programme in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh [Internet]. World Food Programme; 2020 [cited 2022 May 7]. Available from: https: //docs.wfp.org/api/documents/WFP-0000131953/download/

Kumar P, Mamidi RS, Arlappa N, Tiwari K, Rohatgi S, Sarika G, et al. Development and use of alternative nutrient-dense foods for management of acute malnutrition in India. Field Exchange 63. 2020; 53.

Odisha Nutrition Budget, Finance Department [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2022 Feb 4]. Available from: https: //finance.odisha.gov.in/sites/default/files/2021-02/16-Nutrition_Budget.pdf

Sustainable Development Goals | United Nations Development Programme [Internet]. UNDP. 2015 [cited 2022 Jan 12]. Available from: https: //www.undp.org/sustainable-development-goals

Breuer A, Janetschek H, Malerba D. Translating sustainable development goal (SDG) interdependencies into policy advice. Sustainability. 2019; 11(7): 2092. https: //doi.org/10.3390/su11072092

Mensah J. Sustainable development: Meaning, history, principles, pillars, and implications for human action: Literature review. Cogent Social Sciences. 2019; 5(1): 1653531. https: //doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2019.1653531

Khalid AM, Sharma S, Dubey AK. Concerns of developing countries and the sustainable development goals: case for India. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology. 2021; 28(4): 303-15. https: //doi.org/10.1080/13504509.2020.1795744

Bamberger M, Behrens P, Scherer L. Environmental impacts of the nutrition transition and potential hunger eradication in emerging countries. Sustainability Science. 2021; 16(2): 565-79. https: //doi.org/10.1007/s11625-020-00887-7

Popkin BM. Nutritional patterns and transitions. Population and development review. 1993; 138-57. https: //doi.org/10.2307/2938388

Ferry M. What's India's beef with meat? Hindu orthopraxis and food transition in India since the 1980s. In: Sociological Forum. Wiley Online Library; 2020. p. 511-34. https: //doi.org/10.1111/socf.12592

Gandhi VP, Zhou Z. Food demand and the food security challenge with rapid economic growth in the emerging economies of India and China. Food Research International. 2014; 63: 108-24. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.03.015

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2022 Nikita Arya, Rajendra Kumar