Crop rotations and the inclusion of cover crops and green manures are primary tools in the sustainable management of soil-borne diseases in crop production systems. Crop rotations can reduce soil-borne disease through three general mechanisms: (1) serving as a break in the host-pathogen cycle; (2) by altering the soil physical, chemical, or biological characteristics to stimulate microbial activity and diversity; or (3) directly inhibiting pathogens through the release of suppressive or toxic compounds or the enhancement of specific antagonists. Brassicas, sudangrass, and related plant types are disease-suppressive crops well-known for their biofumigation potential but also have other effects on soil microbiology that are important in disease suppression. The efficacy of rotations for reducing soil-borne diseases is dependent on several factors, including crop type, rotation length, rotation sequence, and use of the crop (as full-season rotation, cover crop, or green manure). Years of field research with Brassica and non-Brassica rotation crops in potato cropping systems in Maine have documented the efficacy of Brassica green manures for the reduction of multiple soil-borne diseases. However, they have also indicated that these crops can provide disease control even when not incorporated as green manures and that other non-biofumigant crops (such as barley, ryegrass, and buckwheat) can also be effective in disease suppression. In general, all crops provided better disease control when used as green manure vs. as a cover crop, but the addition of a cover crop can improve control provided by most rotation crops. In long-term cropping system trials, rotations incorporating multiple soil health management practices, such as longer rotations, disease-suppressive rotation crops, cover crops, and green manures, and/or organic amendments have resulted in greater yield and microbial activity and fewer disease problems than standard rotations. These results indicate that improved cropping systems may enhance productivity, sustainability, and economic viability.
Panth M, Hassler SC, Baysal-Gurel F. Methods for management of soil-borne diseases in crop production. Agriculture 2020; 10: 16. https: //doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10010016.
Mihajlovic M, Rekanovic E, Hrustic J, Grahovac M, Tanovic B. Methods for management of soil-borne plant pathogens. Pestic Phytomed (Belgrade) 2017; 32: 9-24. https: //doi.org/10.2298/PIF1701009M
Fiers M, Edel-Hermann V, Chatot C, Le Hingrat Y, Alabouvette C, Steinberg, C. Potato soil-borne diseases. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 2012; 32: 93-132. https: //doi.org/10.1007/s13593-011-0035-z
Adetunji AT, Ncube B, Mulidzi R, Lewu FB. Management impact and benefit of cover crops on soil quality: A review. Soil Tillage Res 2020; 204: 104717. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2020.104717
Ball BC, Bingham I, Rees RM, Watson CA. The role of crop rotations in determining soil structure and crop growth conditions. Can. J Plant Sci 2005; 85: 557-577. https: //doi.org/10.4141.S04-078
Grandy AS, Porter GA, Erich MS. Organic amendment and rotation crop effects on the recovery of soil organic matter and aggregation in potato cropping systems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 2002; 66: 1311-1319. https: //doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2002.1311
Hubbard RK, Strickland RC, Phatak S. Effects of cover crop systems on soil physical properties and carbon/nitrogen relationships in the coastal plain of southeastern USA. Soil Tillage Res 2013; 126: 276-283. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2012.07.009
Magdoff, F. Concepts, components, and strategies of soil health in agroecosystems. J Nematol 2001; 33: 69-172.
Magdoff F, van Es H. Building Soils for Better Crops, 3rd ed.: Waldorf MD: Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education 2009.
Larkin RP. Soil health paradigms and implications for disease management. Annu Rev Phytopathol 2015; 53: 199-221. https: //doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-080614-120357
Abawi GS, Widmer TL. Impact of soil health practices on soil-borne pathogens, nematodes and root diseases of vegetable crops. Appl Soil Ecol 2000; 15: 37–47.
Hao J, Ashley K. Irreplaceable role of amendment-based strategies to enhance soil health and disease suppression in potato production. Microorganisms 2021; 9: 1660. https: //doi.org/10.3990/microorgansims9081660
Gudmestad NC, Taylor RJ, Pasche JS. Management of soil-borne diseases of potato. Australas Plant Pathol 2007; 36: 109-115. https: //doi.org/10.1071/AP06091
Doran JW, Sarrantonio M, Leibig M. Soil health and sustainability. In: Sparks DL, Ed. Advances in Agronomy. San Diego: Academic Press 1996; pp. 1-54.
Kibblewhite MG, Ritz K, Swift MJ. Soil health in agricultural systems. Philos Trans R Soc B 2008; 363: 685-701. https: //doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2178
O'Donnell AG, Seasman M, MacRae A, Waite I, Davies JT. Plants and fertilisers as drivers of change in microbial community structure and function in soils. Plant Soil 2001; 232: 135-45. https: //doi.org/10.1023/A: 1010394221729
Garbeva P, van Veen JA, van Elsas JD. Microbial diversity in soil: selection of microbial populations by plant and soil type and implications for disease suppressiveness. Annu Rev Phytopathol 2004; 42: 243-70. https: //doi.org/10.1146/annurev.phyto.42.012604.135455
Peralta AL, Sun Y, McDaniel MD, Lennon JT. Crop rotational diversity increases disease suppressive capacity of soil microbiomes. Ecosphere 2018; 9: e02235. https: //doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.2235
Dawadi S, Baysal-Gurel F, Addesso KM, Oliver JB, Simmons T. Impact of cover crop usage on soil-borne diseases in field nursery production. Agronomy 2019; 9: 753. https: //doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9110753
Nyiraneza, J, Chen, D, Fraser, T, Comeau, L-P. Improving soil quality and potato productivity with manure and high residue cover crops in Eastern Canada. Plants 2021; 10: 1436. https: //doi.org/10.3390/plants10071436
Gugino BK, Idowu OJ, Schindelbeck RR, van Es HM, Wolfe DW, Moebius-Cline BN, et al. Cornell Soil Health Assessment Training Manual, 2nd Ed. Geneva, NY: Cornell University 2009.
Karlen DL, Hurley EG, Andrews SS, Cambardella CA, Meek DW, Duffy MD, et al. Crop rotation effects on soil quality at three northern corn/soybean belt locations. Agron J 2005; 98: 484-495.
Nyiraneza J, Peters RD, Rodd VA, Grimmett MG, Jiang Y. Improving productivity of managed potato cropping systems in Eastern Canada: crop rotation and nitrogen source effects. Agron J 2015: 107: 1447-1457. https: //doi.org/10.2134/agrnj14.0430
Welbaum GE, Sturz AV, Dong Z, Nowak J. Managing soil microorganisms to improve productivity of agroecosystems. Crit Rev Plant Sci 2004; 23: 175–93.
Cook RJ. Advances in plant health management in the twentieth century. Annu Rev Phytopathol 2000; 38: 95–116.
Krupinsky JM, Bailey KL, McMullen MM, Gossen BD, Turkington TK. Managing plant disease risk in diversified cropping systems. Agron J 2002; 94: 198–209.
Larkin RP, Griffin TS, Honeycutt CW. Rotation and cover crop effects on soil-borne potato diseases, tuber yield, and soil microbial communities. Plant Dis 2010; 94: 1491-1502. https: //doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-03-10-0172
Peters RD, Sturz AV, Carter MR, Sanderson JB. Developing disease-suppressive soils through crop rotation and tillage management practices. Soil Tillage Res 2003; 72: 181–92.
Larkin RP, Honeycutt CW. Effects of different 3-year cropping systems on soil microbial communities and Rhizoctonia diseases of potato. Phytopathology 2006; 96: 68-79. https: //doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-96-0068
Ratnadass A, Fernandes P, Avelino J, Habib R. Plant species diversity for sustainable management of crop pests and diseases in agroecosystems: a review. Agron Sustain Dev 2012; 32: 273–303. https: //doi.org/10.1007/s13593-011-0022-4
Johnson DA, Cummings TF. Effect of extended crop rotations on incidence of black dot, silver scurf, and Verticillium wilt. Plant Dis 2015; 99: 257-262. https: //doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-03-14-0271-RE
Sarrantonio M, Gallandt E. The role of cover crops in North American cropping systems. J Crop Prod 2003; 8(1/2): 53–74. https://doi.org/10.1300/J144v08n01_04
Fageria NK, Baligar VC, Bailey BA. Role of cover crops in improving soil and row crop productivity. Comm Soil Sci Plant Anal 2005; 36: 2733–57. https://doi.org/10.1080/00103620500303939
Snapp SS, Swinton SM, Labarta R, Mutch D, Black JR, Leep R, et al. Evaluating cover crops for benefits, costs, and performance within cropping system niches. Agron J 2005; 97: 322–32. https://doi.org/10.2134/AGRONJ2005.0322A
Clark A, editor. Managing Cover Crops Profitably, 3rd ed. Beltsville MD: Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program 2007.
Blackshaw RE, Moyer JR, Huang HC, Pandalai SG. Beneficial effects of cover crops on soil health and crop improvement. Recent Res Dev Soil Sci 2005; 1: 15–35.
Pieters JA. Green Manuring, Principles and Practices. New York: Wiley and Sons 1927.
Thorup-Kristensen K, Magid J, Jensen LS. Catch crops and green manures as biological tools in nitrogen management in temperate zones. Adv Agron 2003; 79: 227–302.
Abdallahi MM, N’Dayegamiye A. Effects of green manures on soil physical and biological properties and on wheat yields and N uptake. Can J Soil Sci 2000; 80: 81–9.
Cherr CJ, Scholberg JMS, McSorley R. Green manure approaches to crop production: a synthesis. Agron J 2006; 98: 302–19. https://doi.org/10.2134/AGRONJ2005.0035
Fageria NK. Green manuring in crop production. J Plant Nutr 2007; 30: 691–719. https://doi.org/10.1080/00103620500303939
Chander K, Goyal S, Mundra MC, Kapoor KK. Organic matter, microbial biomass and enzymatic activity of soils under different crop rotations in the tropics. Biol Fertil Soils 1997; 24: 306–10.
Goyal S, Chandler K, Mundra MC, Kapoor KK. Influence of inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments on soil organic matter and soil microbial properties under tropical conditions. Biol Fertil Soils 1999; 29: 196–200.
Liu G, Li Z, Jing H, Ye X, Shi H, Wang Y, et al. Effects of consecutive turnover of green manures on soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity. Plant Nutr Fert Sci 2010; 16(6): 1472–8.
Stark C, Condron LM, Stewart A, Di HJ, O’Callaghan M. Influence of organic and mineral amendments on microbial soil properties and properties. Appl Soil Ecol 2007; 35(1): 79–93.
Larkin RP, Griffin TS. Control of soil-borne diseases of potato using Brassica green manures. Crop Prot 2007; 26: 1067–77. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2006.10.004
Larkin RP, Honeycutt CW, Griffin TS, Olanya OM, Halloran JM, He Z. Effects of different potato cropping system approaches and water management on soil-borne diseases and soil microbial communities. Phytopathology 2011; 101: 58-67. https: //doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-04-10-0100
Elfstrand S, Hedlund K, Martensson A. Soil enzyme activities, microbial community composition and function after 47 years of continuous green manuring. Appl Soil Ecol 2007; 35(3): 610–21.
Hollister EB, Hu P, Wang AS, Hons FM., Gentry TJ. Differential impacts of brassicaceous and nonbrassicaceous oilseed meals on soil bacterial and fungal communities. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2013; 83: 632-641. https: //doi.org/10.1111/1574-6941.12020
Abiven S, Menasseri S, Chenu C. The effects of organic inputs over time on soil aggregate stability. Soil Biol Biochem 2008; 41: 1-12.
Albaich R, Canet R, Pomares, F., Ingelmo, F. Organic matter components and aggregate stability after application of different amendments to a horticultural soil. Bioresource Technol 2001; 76: 125-129.
Bai Z, Caspari T, Gonzalez MR, Batjes NH, Mader P, Buneman EK, et al. Effects of agricultural management practices on soil quality: A review of long-term experiments for Europe and China. Agric Ecosystems Environ 2018; 265: 1-7. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2018.05.028
Diacono M, Montemurro F. Long-term effects of organic amendments on soil fertility. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 2010; 30: 401-422. https: //doi.org/10.1051/agro/2009040
Sodhi GPS, Beri V, Benbi DK. Soil aggregation and distribution of carbon and nitrogen in different fractions under long-term application of compost in rice-wheat system. Soil Tillage Res 2009; 103: 412-418. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2008.08.004
Tejada M, Hernandez MT, Garcia C. Soil restoration using composted plant residues: Effects on soil properties. Soil Tillage Res 2009; 102: 109-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2008.08.004
Bonanomi G, Antignani V, Pane C, Scala F. Suppression of soil-borne fungal diseases with organic amendments. J. Plant Pathol 2007; 89: 311–24. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41998410
Bonilla N, Gutierrez-Barranquero JA, de Vicente A, Cazorla FM. Enhancing soil quality and plant health through suppressive organic amendments. Diversity 2012; 4: 475–91. https: //doi.org/10.3390/d4040475
Mehta CM, Palni U, Franke-Whittle IH, Sharma AK. Compost: Its role, mechanism and impact on reducing soil-borne plant diseases. Waste Manag 2013; 34: 607-622. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2013.11.01012
Ninh HT, Grandy AS, Wickings K, Snapp SS. Organic amendment effects on potato productivity and quality are related to soli microbial activity. Plant Soil 2015; 386: 223-236. https: //doi.org/10.1007/s11104-014-2223-5
Noble R, Coventry E. Suppression of soil-borne plant diseases with composts: a review. Biocontrol Sci Technol 2005; 15: 3–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/09583150400015904
Termorshuizen AJ, van Rijn E, van der Gaag DJ, Alabouvette C, Chen Y, Lagerlof J, et al. 2006. Suppressiveness of 18 composts against 7 pathosystems: variability in pathogen response. Soil Biol Biochem 2006; 38: 2461–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.03.002
Van Elsas JD, Postma J. 2007. Suppression of soil-borne phytopathogens by compost. In Diaz LF, de Bertoldi M, Bidlingmaier W, Stentiford E, Eds. Compost Science and Technology. Amsterdam: Elsevier 2007; pp. 201–214. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1478-7482(07)80013-3
Stubbs TL, Kennedy AC, Schillinger WF. Soil ecosystem changes during the transition to no-till cropping. J Crop Improv 2004; 11: 105-135. https://doi.org/10.1300/J411v11n01_06
Aziz I, Mahmood T, Islam KR. Effect of long-term no-till and conventional tillage practices on soil quality. Soil Tillage Res 2013; 131: 28-35. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2013.03.002
Busari MA, Kukal SS, Kaur A, Bhat R, Dulazi AA. Conservation tillage impacts on soil, crop, and the environment. Int Soil Water Conserv Res 2015; 3: 119-129. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.iswcr.2015.05.002
Kahlon MS, Lal R, Varughese MA. Twenty-two years of tillage and mulch impact on physical characteristics. Soil Tillage Res 2013; 125: 151-158. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2012.08.001
Pagliai M, Vignozzi N, Pellegrini S. Soil structure and the effect of management practices. Soil Tillage Res 2004; 79: 131-143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2004.07.002
So HB, Grabski HB, Desborough P. The impact of 14 years of conventional tillage and no-till cultivation on the physical properties and crop yields of a loam soil at Grafton NSW, Australia. Soil Tillage Res. 2009; 104: 180-184. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2008.10.017
Dorr de Quadros P, Kateryna Z, Davis-Richardson A, Fagen JR, Drew J, et al. The effect of tillage system and crop rotation on soil microbial diversity and composition in a subtropical acrisol. Diversity 2012; 4: 375–95. https: //doi.org/10.3390/d4040375
Page K, Dang Y, Dalal R. 2013. Impacts of conservation tillage on soil quality, including soil-borne diseases, with a focus on semi-arid grain cropping systems. Aust Plant Pathol 2013; 42: 363–77. https: //doi.org/10.1007/s13313-013-0198-y
Willekens K, Vandecasteele B, Buchan D, DeNeve S. Soil quality is positively affected by reduced tillage and compost in an intensive vegetable cropping system. Appl. Soil Ecol 2014; 82: 61–71. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2014.05.009
Matthiessen JN, Kirkegaard JA. Biofumigation and enhanced biodegradation: opportunity and challenge in soil-borne pest and disease management. Crit Rev Plant Sci 2006; 25: 235–65. https://doi.org/10.1080/07352680600611543
Sarwar M, Kirkegaard JA, Wong PTW, Desmarchelier JM. Biofumigation potential of Brassicas. III. In vitro toxicity of isothiocyanates to soil-borne fungal pathogens. Plant Soil 1998; 210: 103–12.
Brown PD, Morra MJ. Control of soil-borne plant pests using glucosinolate-containing plants. Adv Agron 1997; 61: 167–231.
Boydston RA, Hang HA. Rapeseed (Brassica napus) green manure crop suppresses weeds in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Weed Technol 1995; 9: 669–75.
Baysal-Guria F, Liyanapathiranage P, Mullican J. Biofumigation: opportunities and challenges for control of soil-borne diseases in nursery production. Plant Health Progress 2018; 19: 332-337. https: //doi.org/10.1094/PHP-08-18-0049-RV
Dutta TK, Khan MR, Phani V. Plant-parasitic nematpode management via biofumigation using brassica and non-brassica plants: Current status and future prospects. Curr Plant Biol 2019; 17: 17-32. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.cpb.2019.02.001
Larkin RP. Green manures and plant disease management. CAB Rev 2013; 8(037): 1–10. https: //doi.org/10.1079/PAVSNNR20138037
Larkin RP, Honeycutt CW, Olanya OM. Management of Verticillium wilt of potato with disease-suppressive green manures and as affected by previous cropping history. Plant Dis 2011; 95: 568-576. https: //doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-09-10-0670
Larkin RP, Honeycutt CW, Olanya OM, Halloran JM, He Z. Impacts of crop rotation and irrigation on soil-borne diseases and soil microbial communities. In: He Z, Larkin RP, Honeycutt CW, Eds. Sustainable Potato Production: Global Case Studies. Amsterdam: Springer 2012; pp. 23–41.
Cohen MF, Mazzola M, Yamasaki H. Brassica napus seed meal soil amendment modifies microbial community structure, nitric oxide production and incidence of Rhizoctonia root rot. Soil Biol Biochem 2005; 37(7): 1215–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.11.027
Mazzola M, Granatstein DM, Elfving DC, Mullinix K. Suppression of specific apple root pathogens by Brassica napus seed meal amendment regardless of glucosinolate content. Phytopathology 2001; 91: 673–9. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO.2001.91.7.673
Larkin RP. Characterization of soil microbial communities under different potato cropping systems by microbial population dynamics, substrate utilization, and fatty acid profiles. Soil Biol Biochem 2003; 35: 1451– 66. https: //doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(03)00240-2
Lupawayi NZ, Rice WA, Clayton GW. Soil microbial diversity and community structure under wheat as influenced by tillage and crop rotation. Soil Biol Biochem 1998; 30: 1733–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(98)00025-X
Vepsalainen M, Erkomaa K, Kukkonen S, Vestberg M, Wallenius K, Niemi RM. The impact of crop plant cultivation and peat amendment on soil microbial activity and structure. Plant Soil 2004; 264: 273-286. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:PLSO.0000047763.46795.cb
Bailey KL, Lazarovits G. Suppressing soil-borne diseases with residue management and organic amendments. Soil Tillage Res 2003; 72: 169–80. https://doi'org/10.1016/S0167-1987(03)00086-2
Ghorbani R, Wilockson S, Koocheki A, Leifert C. Soil management for sustainable crop disease control: a review. Environ Chem Lett 2008; 6: 149–62. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-008-0147-0
Ladygina N, Hedlund K. Plant species influence microbial diversity and carbon allocation in the rhizosphere. Soil Biol Biochem 2010; 42: 162–68. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.10.009
Chaparro JM, Sheflin AM, Manter DK, Vivanco JM. Manipulating the soil microbiome to increase soil health and plant fertility. Biol. Fertil Soils 2012; 48: 489–99. https: //doi.org/10.1007/s00374-012-0691-4
Van Elsas JD, Costa R. Molecular assessment of soil microbial communities with potential for plant disease suppression. In Punja ZK, Boer SH, Sanfacon H, Eds. Biotechnology and Plant Disease Management.. King’s Lynn, UK: CABI 2007, pp. 498–517.
Janvier C, Villeneuve F, Alabouvette A, Edel-Hermann V, Mateille T, Steinberg C. Soil health through soil disease suppression: which strategy from descriptors to indicators? Soil Biol Biochem 2007; 39: 1-23. https: //doi.org/10.10106/j.soilbio.2006.07.001
Mazzola M. Assessment and management of soil microbial community structure for disease suppression. Annu Rev Phytopathol 2004; 42: 35–59. https: //doi.org/10.1146/annurev.phyto.42.040803.140408
Ryan PR, Dessaux Y, Thomashow LS, Weller DM. Rhizosphere engineering and management for sustainable agriculture. Plant Soil 2009; 321: 363–83. https: //doi.org/10.1007/s11104-009-0001-6
Larkin RP, Lynch RP. Use and effects of different Brassica and other rotation crops on soil-borne diseases and yield of potato. Horticulturae 2018; 4: 37. https: //doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae4040037
Mazzola M, Agostini A, Cohen MF. Incorporation of Brassica seed meal soil amendment and wheat cultivation for control of Macrophomina phaseolina in strawberry. Eur J Plant Pathol 2017; 149: 57-71. https: //doi.org/10.1007/s10658-017-1166-0
Lewis JA, Papavizas GC Effect of sulfur-containing volatile compounds and vapors from cabbage decomposition on Aphanomyces euteiches. Phytopathology 1971; 61: 208-214.
Warton B, Matthiessen JN, Shackleton, MA. Cross-enhancement: Enhanced biodegradation of isothiocyanates in soils previously treated with metham sodium. Soil Biol Biochem 2003; 35: 1123-1127. https: //doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(03)00164-0
Potter MJ, Davies K, Rathjen A J. Suppressive impact of glucosinolates in Brassica vegetative tissues on root lesion nematode Pratylenchus neglectus. J Chem Ecol 1998; 24: 67-80. https: //doi.org/10.1023/A: 1022336812240
Vervoort MTW, Vonk JA, Brolsma KM, Schütze W, Quist CW, de Goede RGM, et al. Release of isothiocyanates does not explain the effects of biofumigation with Indian mustard cultivars on nematode assemblages. Soil Biol Biochem 2014; 68: 200-207. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.10.008
Weerakoon DMN, Reardon CL, Paulitz TC, Izzo AD, Mazzola M. Long-term suppression of Pythium abappressorium induced by Brassica juncea seed meal amendment is biologically mediated. Soil Biol Biochem 2012; 51: 44–52. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2012.03.027/
Omirou M, Rousidou C, Bekris F, Papadopoulou KK, Menkissoglou-Spiroudi U, Ehaliotis C, et al. The impact of biofumigation and chemical fumigation methods on the structure and function of the soil microbial community. Microb Ecol 2011; 61: 201–213. https: //doi.org/10.1007/s00248-010-9740-4
Li R, Shen ZZ, Sun L, Zhang RF, Fu L, Deng XH, Shen Q. Novel soil fumigation method for suppressing cucumber Fusarium wilt disease associated with soil microflora alterations. Appl Soil Ecol 2016; 101: 28–36. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2016.01.004
Mazzola M, Brown J, Izzo AD, Cohen MF. Mechanism of action and efficacy of seed meal-induced pathogen suppression differ in a Brassicaceae species and time-dependent manner. Phytopathology 2007; 97: 454–60. https: //doi.org/10.1094/ PHYTO-97-4-0454
Mazzola M, Hewavitharana SS, Strauss SL. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production though resistance to pathogen re-infestation. Phytopathology 2015; 105: 460–469. https: //doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-09-14-0247-R
Ren G, Ma Y, Guo D, Gentry TJ, Hu P, Pierson EA, et al. Soil bacterial community was changed after brassicaceaous seed meal application for suppression of Fusarium wilt on pepper. Front Microbiol 2018; 9: 185. https: //doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00185
Abbasi P, Rendoros W, Fillmore S. Soil incorporation of buckwheat as a pre-plant amendment provides control of Rhizoctonia damping off and root rot of radish and Pythium damping-off and root rot of cucumber. Can J Plant Pathol 2019; 41: 24-34. https: //doi.org/10.1080/07060661
Lankau EW, Xue D, Christensen R, Gevens AJ, Lankau RA. Management and soil conditions influence common scab severity on potato tubers via indirect effects on soil microbial communities. Phytopathology 2020; 110: 1049-1055. https: //doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-06-19-0223-R
Larkin RP, Halloran JM. Management effects of disease-suppressive rotation crops on potato yield and soil-borne disease and their economic implications in potato production. Am J Potato Res 2014; 91: 429-439. https: //doi.org/10.1007/s12230-014-9366-z
Chellemi DO, Gamliel A, Katan J, Subbarao KV. Development and deployment of systems-based approaches for the management of soil-borne plant pathogens. Phytopathology 2016; 106: 216-225. https: //doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-09-15-0204-RVW
Larkin RP, Honeycutt CW, Griffin TS, Olanya OM, He Z, Halloran JM. Cumulative and residual effects of diferent potato cropping system management strategies on soil-borne diseases and soil microbial communities over time. Plant Pathol 2017; 66: 437-449. https: //doi.org/10.1111/ppa.12584.
Larkin RP, Honeycutt CW, Griffin TS, Olanya OM, He Z. Potato growth and yield characteristics under different potato cropping system management strategies in northeastern U.S. Agronomy 2021; 11: 165. https: //doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11010165.
Larkin RP. Incorporating disease-suppressive rotation crops and organic amendments into improved potato cropping systems. (Abstr.) Phytopathology 2017; 107: S5.48. https: //doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-107-12-S5.48
Larkin, RP. Long-term effects of potato cropping system strategies on soil-borne diseases and soil microbial communities. (Abstr) Phytopathology 2018: 108: S1.163. https: //doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-108-10-S1.163.
Powell SM, McPhee JE, Dean G, Hinton S, Sparrow, LA, Wilson, CR, Tegg RS. Managing soil health and crop productivity in potato: a challenging test system. Soil Res 2020; 58: 697-712. https: //doi.org/10.1071/SR20032
Sinton SM, Dellow SJ, Jamieson PD, Falloon RE, Shah FA, Meenken ED, Richards KK, Michel AJ, Tregurtha CS, Mcculloch JM. Cropping history affects potato yields in Canterbury, New Zealand. Am J Potato Res 2020; 97: 202-213. https: //doi.org/10.1007/s12230-02009767-3
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.