State of the Environment and Its Impacts on the Urban Agriculture of Edible Plants in the City of Lubumbashi
Abstract - 152
PDF

Keywords

Health risks
Heavy metals
Environment state
Pathogen microorganisms
Urban agriculture practice
Contaminated edible plants

How to Cite

1.
Shengo Lutandula M, Mpanga FI. State of the Environment and Its Impacts on the Urban Agriculture of Edible Plants in the City of Lubumbashi. Glob. Environ. Eng. [Internet]. 2022 Dec. 5 [cited 2024 Jul. 25];9:33-48. Available from: https://www.avantipublishers.com/index.php/tgevnie/article/view/1286

Abstract

This research looked at the state of the environment in the areas where amaranth urban agriculture is practised in the municipality of Katuba, City of Lubumbashi, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Samples of water used for watering, the soil where urban agriculture is practised, and amaranths have been subjected to characterization analyses to look for chemical and microbiological pollutants. These analyses revealed that water and amaranths are polluted from the mineral and microbial standpoint, unlike soil samples. Indeed, water samples contained Paramecia, Entamoeba histolytica's eggs and colonies of faecal contamination germs, mesophilic flora, and other pathogen germs such as Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As for amaranth samples, their concentrations of cobalt were greater than the value set by the quality standards. The Paramecia, Entamoeba histolytica’s eggs, Escherichia coli, and Klesiella planticola contaminate them. For the above, consuming these amaranths poses health risks to the population. Public authorities must take the necessary measures to organize the practice of urban agriculture of edible plants to bring it up to standard and protect the consumers’ health.

https://doi.org/10.15377/2410-3624.2022.09.3
PDF

References

Orsini F, Kahane R, Nono-Womdim R, Gianquinto G. Urban agriculture in the developing world: a review. Agron Sustain Dev. 2013; 33(4): 695-720.https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-013-0143-z

Tambwe N, Rudolph M, Greenstein R. 'Instead of begging, I farm to feed my children: urban agriculture - An alternative to copper and cobalt in Lubumbashi. J Intl Afr Inst. 2011; 81(3): 391-412. https://doi.org/10.1017/s000197201100043x

Tambwe N. Urban agriculture as a global economic activity with special reference to the city of Lubumbashi in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Afr Asian Stud 2006; 5(2): 193-213. https://doi.org/10.1163/156920906777906772

Peša I. Crops and copper: Agriculture and urbanism on the Central African copperbelt, 1950-2000. J South Afr Stud. 2020; 46(3): 527-45. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057070.2020.1750872

Boischio A. Health Risks and Benefits of Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture and Livestock (UA) in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Boischio A, Clegg A, Mwagore D, Eds. Urban Poverty and Environment Series Report #1. Canada: The International Development Research Centre (IDRC); 2006 Aug. pp.1-136. Available at https://idl-bnc-idrc.dspacedirect.org/bitstream/handle/10625/35531/127428.pdf

Atidegla SC, Agbossou EK, Huat J, GleleKakai R. Contamination métallique des légumes des périmètres maraîchers urbains et péri urbains: Cas de la commune de Grand–Popo au Bénin. Int J Biol Chem Sci. 2011; 5(6): 2351-61. https://doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v5i6.15

Kalonda DM, Tshikongo AK, Kule Koto FK, Busambwa CK, Bwalya YK, Cansa HM, et al. Profil des métaux lourds contenus dans les plantesvivrières consommées couramment dans quelqueszones minières de la province du Katanga. J App Biosci. 2015; 96: 9049-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jab.v96i1.2

Tshibangu IM. Goat Breeding in the Katanga Copper Belt (KCB): Constraints, Opportunities and Prospects. In: Kukovics S, Ed. Goat Science - Environment, Health and Economy. London: Intech Open; 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.81385

Crush J, Hovorka A, Tevera D. Food security in Southern African cities: the place of urban agriculture. Prog Dev Stud. 2011; 11(4): 285-305. https://doi.org/10.1177/146499341001100402

Shivaji P, Ndiaga G. Developing greener cities in the democratic republic of Congo. Rome: The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2010; pp.1-12. Accessible via https://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1901f/i1901f01.pdf

Michel MMM, Yannick US, François NN, Emmanuel MM, Prisca KK, Muyembe M, et al. Évaluation des teneurs en éléments tracesmétalliques dans les légumes feuilles vendus dans les différents marchés de la zone minière de Lubumbashi. J Appl Biosci. 2013; 66: 5106-13.

Martin-Moreau M, Ménascé D. Urban agriculture: another way to feed cities. Field Actions Sci Rep. 2019; 20: 1-119.

Growing Greener Citiesin Africa. First status report on urban and peri-urban horticulture in Africa. Rome: The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2012 pp.1-111.

Arsene BA, Arsene JNM. Potential threats to agricultural food production and farmers’ coping strategies in the marshlands of Kabare in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Cogent Food Agric. 2021; 7(1): 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2021.1933747

Arsene MB, Patient BV, Emanuel MM, Nathan KM, Jules NMF. Production of the truck farming in Lubumbashi: comparative analysis of the profitability of headed cabbage and cabbage of China. Int J Innov Sci Res. 2015;14(1): 55-61.

Taguchi M, Santini G. Urban agriculture in the Global North & South: a perspective from FAO. Field Actions Sci Rep. 2019; 20: 12-17.

Kasanda MN, Arsene MB, Helene KJ, Jules NMF, Bogaert J. Periurban track farming at Lubumbashi: access ways to land and agricultural areas management. Int J Innov Appl Stud. 2016; 14(1): 27-36.

Soncy K, Djeri B, Anani K, Eklou-Lawson M, Adjrah Y, Karou DS, et al. Évaluation de la qualité bactériologique des eaux depuits et de forage à Lomé, Togo. J Appl Biosci. 2015; 91: 8464-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jab.v91i1.6

United Nations Population Division 2008 World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision.ST/ESA/SER.A/237. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. United Nations, New York. ESA/P/WP/205.

Obosu-Mensah K. Food production in urban areas. A study of urban agriculture in Accra., Ghana. UK: Routledge; 2020 pp.1-224.

Mpundu M, Léonard G. Le Haut-Katanga: quel projet pour l’agriculture ? Conjonctures congolaises 2015, pp. 159-198. Avalable at https://www.eca-creac.eu/sites/default/files/pdf/2015-07-mpundu-leonard.pdf

Smit J, Nasr J, Ratta A. Who Are the Urban Farmers? In: Urban Agriculture: Food Jobs and Sustainable Cities. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); 2001 pp.1-32. Available at http://www.jacsmit.com/book/Chap08.pdf

Shengo LM. Etude du recyclage de l’eaurésiduairedans la flotation des mineraisoxydéscuprocobaltifères du gisement de Luiswishi [dissertation]. The Belgian Kingdom:Department of ArGEnCo, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Liege; 2013.

Lutandula SM, Maloba B. Recovery of cobalt and copper through reprocessing of tailings from flotation of oxidised ores. J Environ Chem Eng. 2013; 1(4): 1085-1090.

Shengo LM, Tshabu M, Ilunga N. Survey of metal contaminants in the effluent generated by three factories in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. J Environ Health Aus. 2008; 8(3): 40-45.

Shengo LM, Mansoj MM. The pollution of the surface waters and its impact on the quality of the vegetables cultivated and consumed in the city of Lubumbashi. J Environ Health Aus. 2008; 8(2): 58-66.

ZambezeKS. L'eau dans la ville de Lubumbashi : qualité, approvisionnement et usage, implications épidémiologiques: rapport des recherches effect uéesdurant la treizième session des travaux de l'Observatoire, août 2004. Lubumbashi, Congo: University Cooperation for Development (U.C.D), University of Lubumbashi; 2004; pp. 27, 35-39, 41.

Shengo L, Mashala T, Kalenga M, Chanka L. Etude de la pollution des écosystèmes aquatiques à Lubumbashi « Cas de la rivière Lubumbashi ». Annales du CUKAM/Ext. Unilu 2007; 5(1): 76-81.

Tankari Dan-Badjo A, Guero Y, Dan Lamso N, Barage M, Balla A, Sterckeman T, et al. Évaluation des niveaux de contamination enéléments traces métalliques de laitue et de choucultivés dans la vallée de GountiYena à Niamey, Niger. J Appl Biosci. 2013; 67: 5326-35.

Shengo LM, Mutiti CWN, Nonda AK, Mukadi AT. Health issues related to the intake of cabbages grown at soils irrigated with contaminated waters. J Chem Biol Phys Sci. 2014; 4(4): 3223-31.

Cellule d’Exécution des Projets Eau(CEP-O/REGIDESO). Projet d’alimentation en Eau Potable enMilieu Urbain-Financement Additionnel (PEMU-FA). Etude d’Impact Environnemental et Social des infrastructures hydrauliques de la ville de Lubumbashi dans la Province du Haut-Katanga, Ministry of Energy and Water Resources, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2018; pp.1-143.

Shengo LM, Mutiti CWN, Nonda AK, Mukadi AT. Assessment of health risks related to the intake of cabbages grown at sites contaminated by heavy metals. J Chem Biol Phys Sci. 2014; 4(4): 3798-808.

Berihun BT, Amare DE, Raju RP, Ayele DT, Dagne H. Determination of the level of metallic contamination in irrigation vegetables, the soil, and the water in Gondar City, Ethiopia. Nutr Diet Suppl. 2021; 13: 1-7.

Aubry C, Manouchehri N. Urban agriculture and health: assessing risks and overseeing practices. Field Actions Sci Rep. 2019; 20: 108-11.

Antwi-Agyei P, Ensink J. Wastewater use in urban agriculture: anexposure and risk assessment in Accra, Ghana. J Sci Technol. 2016; 36(1): 7-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/just.v36i1.2

Sanders E.R. Aseptic laboratory techniques: plating methods. J Vis Exp. 2012; (63): e3064. http://doi: 10.3791/3064

Centre d’Expertise en Analyse Environnementale du Québec. Recherche et dénombrement des bactéries hétérotrophes aérobies et anaérobies facultatives : méthode par incorporation à la gélose. MA. 700 – BHA35 1.0, Rév. 3, Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs du Québec, 2011; 15 p.

Bernier J-L. 2007. Transfert technologique et validation de tests microbiologiques sur un laboratoire mobile conçu pour la surveillance de la qualité de l'eau en régions éloignées (thesis). Quebec: Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University; 2007; p.97.

Diassana MA. Identification des souchesd’ Escherichia coli dans les sellesen rapport avec la malnutrition a DIORO [dissertation]. Republic of Mali: the Bamako University of Science, Technology and Technologies; 2018 ; p.50.

Mahey S, Kumar R, Sharma M, Kumar V, Bhardwaj R. A critical review on toxicity of cobalt and its bioremediation strategies. SN Appl Sci. 2020; 2: 1279. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-020-3020-9.

Khan ZI, Ahmad T, Safdar H, Nadeem M, Ahmad K, Bashir H, et al. Accumulation of cobalt in soils and forages irrigated with city effluent. Egypt J Bot. 2020; 60(3): 855-63.

Toxicological profile for cobalt. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR); April 2004.

Shahbazi A, Soffianian AR, Mirghaffari N, Rezaei H. Impact of agricultural activities on accumulation of Cadmium, Cobalt, Chromium, Copper, Nickel and Lead in soil of Hamedan province. Environ Resour Res. 2018; 6(1):79-87.

Greiner M, Anagnostopoulos A, Pohl D, Zbinden R, Zbinden A. A rare case of severe gastroenteritis caused by Aeromonas hydrophila after colectomy in a patient with anti-Hu syndrome: a case report. BMC Infect Dis. 2021; 21(1): 1097. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06784-3.

Mpanga FI, Lutandula MS. Assessment of the pollution of soils utilized for growing edible plants in the DR Congo.J Glob Environ Eng. 2022; 9: 12-32. https://doi: 10.15377/2410-3624.2022.09.2

Hemeir A. Effet des métaux lourds (cuivre et zinc) sur les paramètres chimiques, morphologiques et biométriques de la tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum. Mill) [Thesis]. Mostaganem, Algeria: AbdelhamidIbn Badis University; 2015 p.73.

Rufyikiri G. Contraintes nutritionnelles chez le bananier (Musa spp.) cultivés en milieux riches en aluminium solubles et conséquences sur sa croissance [Dissertation]. Belgium: Université Catholique de Louvain; 2000p.157.

Boyer J. L’aluminium échangeable: incidences agronomiques, évaluation et correction de sa toxicité dans les sols tropicaux. Cahier ORSTOM, série Pédologique1976; XIV(4): 259-69.

Tchounwou PB, Yedjou CG, Patlolla AK, Sutton DJ. Heavy metals toxicity and the environment. Exp Suppl. 2012; 101: 133-64. http://doi:10.1007/978-3-7643-8340-4_6.

Onakpa MM, Njan AA, Kalu OC. A review of heavy metal contamination of food cropsin Nigeria. Ann Glob Health 2018; 84(3): 488-94. https://doi.org/10.29024/aogh.2314.

Tremel-Schaub A, Feix I. Contamination des sols: Transferts des sols vers les plantes. France: ADEME; 2005 pp.1-413.

Bouland C. Intoxication aux métaux lourds, Les données de l'IBGE: "Interface Santé et Environnement. Brussels Institute for Environmental Management/ Environmental Data Observatory, 2002; pp.1-7.

Centre d’Expertise en Analyse Environnementale du Québec. Dénombrement d’Escherichia coli: méthode par tubes multiples employant un milieu de culture à substrat enzymatique, MA. 700-Ec-tm 1.0, Rév.1, Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs du Québec; 2005 p.19.

Watanabe K, Higuchi Y, Shimmura M, Tachibana M, Fujishima M, Shimizu T, et al. Peculiarparamecium hosts fail to establish a stable intracellular relationship with Legionella pneumophila. Front Microbiol. 2020; 11: 1-10. http://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.596731.

Frager S, Chrisman CJ, Shakked R, Casadevall A. Paramecium species ingest and kill the cells of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Med Mycol. 2010; 48(5): 775-9. http://doi.org/10.3109/13693780903451810.

Peterson TS, Ferguson JA, Watral VG, Mutoji KN, Ennis DG, Kent ML. Paramecium caudatum enhances transmission and infectivity of Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium chelonae in zebrafish (Daniorerio). Dis Aquat Organ. 2013; 106(3): 229-39. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02649.

Flores E, Thompson L, Sirisaengtaksin N, Nguyen AT, Ballard A, Krachler AM. Using the Protozoan Paramecium Caudatum as a vehicle for food-borne infections in Zebrafish larvae. J Vis Exp. 2019; (143): 10.3791/58949. https://doi.org/10.3791/58949

Stones DH, Fehr AGJ, Thompson L, Rocha J, Perez-Soto N, Madhavan VTP, et al. Zebrafish (Daniorerio) as a Vertebrate Model Host To Study Colonization, Pathogenesis, and Transmission of Foodborne Escherichia coli O157. mSphere. 2017; 2(5): e00365-17. https://doi.org/10.1128/mSphereDirect.00365-17

Pham Duc P, Nguyen-Viet H, Hattendorf J, ZinsstagJ, Dac Cam P, Odermatt P. Risk factors for Entamoeba histolytica infection inan agricultural community in Hanamprovince, Vietnam. Parasit Vectors. 2011; 4: 102. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-4-102

WHO/PAHO/UNESCO Report: a consultation with experts on Amoebiasis. Mexico City, Mexico: Epidemiological Bulletin 28-29 January, 1997; 18(1): p.13-14.

van Hal SJ, Stark DJ, Fotedar R, Marriott D, Elis JT, Harkness JL. Amoebiasis: current status in Australia. Med J Aust. 2007; 186(8): 412-6. https://doi.org/10.5694/j.1326-5377.2007.tb00975.x

Hegazi MA, Patel TA, El-Deek, BS. Prevalence and characters of Entamoeba histolytica infection in Saudi infants and children admitted with diarrhea at 2 main hospitals at South Jeddah: a re-emerging serious infection with unusual presentation. Braz J Infect Dis. 2013; 17(1): 32-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjid.2012.08.021

Nichols GL. Food-borne protozoa. Br Med Bull. 2000; 56(1): 209-35. https://doi.org/10.1258/0007142001902905

Li Y, Qiu Y, Gao Y, Chen W, Li C, Dai X, et al. Genetic and virulence characteristics of a Raoultella planticola isolate resistant to carbapenem and tigecycline. Sci Rep. 2022; 12(1): 3858. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-07778-0

Allocati N, Masulli M, AlexeyevMF, Di Ilio C. Escherichia coli in Europe: an overview. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013; 10(12): 6235-54. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10126235.

Kaper JB, Nataro JP, Mobley HLT. Pathogenic Escherichia coli. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004; 2(2): 123-40. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro818.

Gomes TAT, Elias WP, Scaletsky ICA, Gutha BEC, Rodrigues JF, Piazza RMF, et al. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Braz J Microbiol. 2016; 47(Suppl 1): 3-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjm.2016.10.015

Cissoko Y, Maiga A, Dabita D, Dicko MS, Koné D, Konaté I, et al. Raoultella planticola and urinary tract infection: The first laboratoryconfirmed case in an HIV-infected patient in Mali. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2022; 16(5): 909-12. https://doi.org/10.3855/jidc.15688

WHO/FAO/IAEA. Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health. Switzerland, Geneva: World Health Organization; 1996.

Martinez-Ballesta MC, Dominguez-Perles R, Moreno DA, Muries B, Alcaraz-Lopez C, BastiasE, et al. Minerals in plant food: effect of agricultural practices and role in human health. A review. Agron Sustain Dev. 2010; 30: 295-309. https://doi.org/10.1051/agro/2009022

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2022 Michel Shengo Lutandula, Fabien Ilunga Mpanga