The Potential Use of Raw Iron Ore in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis
PDF

Keywords

Catalyst costing
Fischer-Tropsch synthesis
Iron ore
Mechanical strength
Step-based method

How to Cite

1.
Mubenesha S, Okoye-Chine CG, Ramutsindela FK, Gorimbo J, Moyo M, Liu X. The Potential Use of Raw Iron Ore in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis. Int. J. Petrol. Technol. [Internet]. 2021 Oct. 18 [cited 2022 Jun. 28];8:99-115. Available from: https://www.avantipublishers.com/index.php/ijpt/article/view/1049

Abstract

Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis has been studied in the literature as a greener pathway to cleaner and sustainable hydrocarbons production. However, the cost to upscale laboratory FT formulations to pilot scale is significantly expensive. This work proposes a cheaper and scalable low-temperature FT modified iron ore catalyst that is mechanically suited for fixed bed reactors. The mechanical strength reported in this investigation was three times more than commercial alumina spherical pellets and, therefore, suitable for pilot scale scenarios. A manufacturing cost analysis of iron ore was estimated to be US$38.45/kg using the CatCost model, and the conventionally prepared iron catalyst was US$71.44/kg using the same model. The manufacturing cost estimations of modified iron ore were found to be 46% cheaper than a conventional commercial iron catalyst. The catalytic performance of the modified iron ore catalyst showed a CO conversion of 72.1% ±4.24, with WGS and C5+ selectivity 48.6% ±1.96 and 83.2% ± 5.24, respectively. These findings were comparable (both in CO conversion and product selectivity) to the ones reported by other researchers.

https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-787X.2021.08.8
PDF

References

Baddour FG, Snowden-swan L, Super JD, Van Allsburg KM. Estimating Precommercial Heterogeneous Catalyst Price: A Simple Step-Based Method. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2018; 22: pp. 1599-1605. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.oprd.8b00245

Anderson J. Determining Manufacturing Costs. 2009; 1: pp. 27-31.

Anderson J, Fennell A, Chemical D. Calculate Financial Indicators to Guide Investments. 2013.

Desai MB. Appendix 1 Equipment cost Estimates. 1981; pp. 65-70.

Mbele P. Pelletizing of Sishen concentrate. J. South. African Inst. Min. Metall. 2012; 112(3): pp. 221-228.

Klerk D. Fischer Tropsch Refining. Wiley-VCH, 2011.

Peters KD. Timmerhaus M. S. Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers, 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Luque R, De La Osa AR, Campelo JM, Romero AA, Valverde JL, Sanchez P. Design and development of catalysts for Biomass-To-Liquid-Fischer-Tropsch (BTL-FT) processes for biofuels production. Energy Environ. Sci. 2012; 5(1): pp. 5186-5202, https://doi.org/10.1039/C1EE02238E

Perego C. Development of a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst: From laboratory to commercial scale demonstration. Rend. Lincei, 2007; 18(4): pp. 305-317. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02934926

Dry ME. Handbook of Heterogenous Catalysis. 2005.

Mubenesha S. A Design AND Development of iron ore Fischer Tropsch Catalyst. University of South Africa, Pretoria, 2021.

Argyle MD, Bartholomew CH. Heterogeneous catalyst deactivation and regeneration: A review. Catalysts, 2015; 5(1): MDPI AG, pp. 145-269. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal5010145

Badoga S, Vosoughi V, Dalai AK. Performance of Promoted Iron/CNT Catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis: Influence of Pellet Shapes and Binder Loading. Energy and Fuels, 2017; 31(11): pp. 12633-12644. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.7b01318

Seo JH, et al. Influence of Binder on Fe-based Extrudate as Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts. Korean Chem. Eng. Res. 2011; 49(6): pp. 726-731. https://doi.org/10.9713/kcer.2011.49.6.726

David E. Mechanical strength and reliability of the porous materials used as adsorbents/ catalysts and the new development trends. Arch. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2015: 73(1): pp. 5-17.

Rytter E, Holmen A. Deactivation and regeneration of commercial type fischer-tropsch co-catalysts-A mini-review. Catalysts, 2015; 5(2): MDPI AG, pp. 478-499. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal5020478

Zakeri M, Samimi A, Shafiee Afarani M, Salehirad A. Effects of porosity and pore size distribution on mechanical strength reliability of industrial-scale catalyst during preparation and catalytic test steps. Part. Sci. Technol. 2018; 36(1): pp. 96-103. https://doi.org/10.1080/02726351.2016.1220437

Li Y, et al. Measurement and statistics of single pellet mechanical strength of differently shaped catalysts. Powder Technol. 2000; 113(1-2): pp. 176-184. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-5910(00)00231-X

Bae JS, et al. Eco-friendly prepared iron-ore-based catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Appl. Catal. B Environ. 2019; 244: pp. 576-582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.11.082

U. Nations Report W. population Prospects. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. New York, 2019.

Gruber H, et al. Fischer-Tropsch products from biomass-derived syngas and renewable hydrogen. Biomass Convers. Biorefinery, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13399-019-00459-5

Hensen EJM, Wang P, Xu W. Research Trends in Fischer--Tropsch Catalysis for Coal to Liquids Technology. Front. Eng. Manag. 2016; 3(4): p. 321. https://doi.org/10.15302/J-FEM-2016051

Zhang Q, Deng W, Wang Y. Recent advances in understanding the key catalyst factors for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. J. Energy Chem. 2013; 22(1): pp. 27-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2095-4956(13)60003-0

Aliyu AK, Modu B, Tan CW. A review of renewable energy development in Africa: A focus in South Africa, Egypt and Nigeria. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2018; 81(6): pp. 2502-2518. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.06.055

Chun DH, et al. Brief Review of Precipitated Iron-Based Catalysts for Low-Temperature Fischer - Tropsch Synthesis. Top. Catal. 2020; no. 2.

Dautzenberg FM. Characterization and Catalyst Development, 1989; 411(1): Dau.

Abernethy R B. The New Weibull Handbook. 1996.

Hong SY, et al. Nanocrystalline Iron-Ore-Based Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 2016; 16(2): pp. 2014-2018. https://doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2016.12002

Qi W, Sathre R, III WRM, Shehabi A. Unit price scaling trends for chemical products. Lbnl-189844. 2015; 11: p. 17. https://doi.org/10.2172/1236367

Weaver KF, Morales VC, Dunn SL, Godde K, Weaker PF. An Introduction to Statistical Analysis in Research: With Applications in the Biological and Life Science; John Wiley & Sons, First Edition; NW, USA; 2018; pp 353-392. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119454205

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2021 Samuel Mubenesha, Chike George Okoye-Chine, Franscina Katuchero Ramutsindela, Joshua Gorimbo, Mahluli Moyo, Xinying Liu