Recognition Method of Mine Water Sources Based on Factor Analysis


Mine water inrushes
Recognition of mine water sources
Piper diagram
Factor analysis

How to Cite

Li Yue, Shi Longqing. Recognition Method of Mine Water Sources Based on Factor Analysis. Glob. J. Earth Sci. Eng. [Internet]. 2020 Dec. 10 [cited 2022 Jun. 28];7(1):69-80. Available from:


Taking Jiaozuo mining area as the research background, according to the survey of water samples among the main water-filled aquifers of the mine and water gushing sources due to the exploitation of the No.21 coal seams in Shanxi group, six kinds of water chemical composition were selected as the sample indexes, including Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, Na++K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, based on the data of groundwater chemical composition, and a principal component analysis was applied to establish the mathematical model by the method of factor analysis. A piper diagram was used to intuitively conduct the synthetical analyses for the general chemical characteristics and water quality types of the water samples. At the same time, via the comparative analysis between the water properties of water exits and that of the main aquifers in the Jiaozuo mining area, discrimination of the hybridization of the multiple water gushing sources due to coal mining was done. Moreover, by dint of the SPSS factor analysis, the water chemical proxies were carried on dimensionality reduction from the six kinds of water chemical composition to the three major factors, which replaced the original variables to participate in the data modeling. The results of the study showed that the combination of the piper diagram and the factor analysis modeling could effectively identify the water gushing sources owing to exploiting the No.21 coal seams of the Shanxi group in the Jiaozuo mining area and rank on the basis of the contributions of each aquifer to the amounts of water bursting in the mine, solving the problems of information superposition and correlations consisted in the identification of water gushing sources, which provides a theoretical basis for the prevention and cure of the mine water disasters.


The National Development and Reform Commission, the National Energy Administration. The 13th Five-Year plan for energy development. 2016.

Yang Q, Han DX. China coal geology. China Coal Industry Publishing House, Beijing. 1979.

Qu XY, Qiu M, Liu JH, Niu ZC, Wu XS. Prediction of maximal water bursting discharge from coal seam floor based on multiple nonlinear regression analysis. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 2019; 12(18): 567.

Shi LQ, Qu XY, Han J, Qiu M, Gao WF, Qin DX, Liu HS. Multi-model fusion for assessing the risk of the inrush of limestone karst water through the mine floor. Journal of China Coal Society 2019; 44(8): 2484-2493.

Shi LQ, Qiu M, Wang Y, Qu XY, Liu TH. Evaluation of water inrush from underlying aquifers by using a modified water-inrush coefficient model and water-inrush index model: a case study in Feicheng coalfield, China. Hydrogeol J 2019; 27: 2105–2119.

Chiara C, Sabrina B, Cesare C. GPR surveys for the prevention of karst risk in underground gypsum quarries. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 2020; 95: 103137.

Zhao TC. Comprehensive control technology of Ordovician limestone water in North China. China Coal Industry Publishing House. 2006.

The State Statistical Bureau. The output of raw coal in China increased by 0.8% in 2013. China Coal 2014; (3): 115.

Li B, Chen YL. Risk assessment of coal floor water inrush from underlying aquifers based on GRA-AHP and its application. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering 2016; 34(1): 143-154.

Xiao L, Tang SH, Zhao CL, Yuan TX, Yang W. Grey-risk estimation of the water inrush from No. 9 coal floor in Guoerzhuang Mine. Applied Mechanics and Materials 2013; 295-298: 3019-3022.

Liu WT, Liu SL, Sun YS. Risk evaluation of water inrush from coal floor based on BP neural network. Applied Mechanics and Materials 2015; 744-746: 1728-1732.

Shi LQ, Qiu M, Wang Y, Qu XY, Liu TH. Evaluation of water inrush from underlying aquifers by using a modified water-inrush coefficient model and water-inrush index model: a case study in Feicheng Coalfield, China. Hydrogeology Journal 2019; 27: 2105–2119.

Shi LQ, Han J, Song Y. Forecast of water inrush from mining floor with probability indexes. Journal of China University of Mining & Technology (Social Science) 1999; 28(5): 442-460.

Shi LQ, Han J. Water-inrush mechanism and prediction of coalbed floor. China University of Mining and Technology Press, Xuzhou. 2004.

Wu Q, Zhang ZL, Ma JF. A new practical methodology of the coal floor water bursting to evaluate the master controlling index system construction. Journal of China Coal Society 2007; 32(1): 42-47.

Wu Q, Zhang ZL, Zhang SY, Ma JF. A new practical methodology of the coal floor water bursting evaluating-the vulnerable index method. Journal of China Coal Society 2007; 32(11): 1121-1126.

Qiu M, Shi LQ, Teng C, Zhou Y. Assessment of water inrush risk using the Fuzzy Delphi Analytic Hierarchy Process and Grey Relational Analysis in the Liangzhuang Coal Mine, China. Mine Water Environ 2017; 36: 39–50.

Zhu ZK, Xu ZM, Sun YJ, Huang XL. Research on the risk evaluation methods of water inrush from coal floor based on dimensionless multi-source information fusion technique. Journal of Mining and Safety Engineering 2013; 30(6): 911-916.

Zhang WQ, Zhang GP, Li W, Hua X. A model of Fisher's discriminant analysis for evaluating water inrush risk from coal seam floor. Journal of China Coal Society 2013; 38(10): 1831-1836.

Wu Q, Wang JH, Liu DH, Cui FP, Liu SQ. A new practical methodology of the coal floor water bursting evaluating IV: the application of AHP vulnerable index method based on GIS. J China Coal Soc 2009; 34: 233–238.

Shi LQ, Han J. Floor water-inrush mechanism and prediction. China University of Mining and Technology Press, Xuzhou. 2004.

Yu XG. Study on the broken depth of the damaged floor. Shandong University of Science and Technology. 2011.

Shi LQ, Bo CS, Wei JC, Han J, Zhai MH, Zhai PH, Sang HX, Zhu L. Theory and technology of Ordovician limestone karst water control in North China type coalfield. China Coal Industry Publishing House, Beijing. 2015.

Hu SQ. Analysis of water inrush hazard and water flooding in A group of coal mine in liuzhuang coal mine. Chengdu University of Technology. 2018.

Wei WX, Lu XM, Shi LQ. Identification method of a multi-water source of mine water inrush. Journal of China Coal Society 2010; 35(05): 811-815.

Yin SX. Modes and mechanism for water inrushes from coal seam floor. Journal of Xi'an University of Science and Technology 2009; 29(6): 661-665.

Han J, Shi LQ, Yu XG, Wei JC, Li SC. Mechanism of mine water-inrush through a fault from the floor. Mining Science and Technology (China) 2009; 19: 276-281.

Barmaki MD, Rezaei M, Madadi S. Use of fractal dimensions analysis in geographic information system and remote sensing techniques to identify prospective groundwater zones in the Anar-Dashtegol anticline, Iran. Carbonates and Evaporites 2019; 35(1).

Guo XS, Shi LQ. Research on quantitative analysis of water inrush through risk based on fault impact factor and fault fractal dimension characteristics. Journal of Shandong University (Engineering Science) 2014; 44(05): 58-64.

Wang G, Wu MM, Wang R, Xu H, Song X. Height of the mining-induced fractured zone above a coal face. Eng Geol 2017; 216: 140–152.

Jaber JO, Mohsen MS. Evaluation of non-conventional water resources supply in Jordan-ScienceDirect. Desalination 2001; 136(1): 83-92.

Aykut T. Determination of groundwater potential zones using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) between Edirne-Kalkansogut (northwestern Turkey). Groundwater for Sustainable Development 2021; 12(12): 100545.

Gaur S, Chahar BR, Graillot D. Analytic elements method and particle swarm optimization based simulation-optimization model for groundwater management. Journal of Hydrology 2011; 402(3-4): 217-227.

Drever JI. The geochemistry of natural waters: surface and groundwater environments. Journal of Environmental Quality 1997; 27(1): 245-246.

Marios S. Interactions between groundwater and surface water: the state of the science. Hydrogeology Journal 2002; 10: 348.

Zhou J, Shi XZ, Wang HY. Water-bursting source determination of mine based on distance discriminant analysis model. Journal of China Coal Society 2010; 35(02): 278-282.

Chen HJ, Li XB, Liu AH, Peng SQ. Identifying mine water inrush sources by Fisher discriminant analysis method. J. Cent. South Univ.(Natural Science) 2009; 40(04): 1114-1120.

Chen HJ, Li XB, Liu AH. Studies of water source determination method of mine water inrush based on Bayes' multi-group stepwise discriminant analysis theory. The Rock and Soil Mechanics 2009; 30(12): 3655-3659.

Yu KL, Yang YS, Zhang CP. Application of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method in identifying water sources of water-inrush in the underground shaft. Met Min 2007; (03): 47-50.

Jiang AN, Liang B.The particle swarm optimization support vectors machine method of identifying standard components of ions of groundwater. Journal of China Coal Society 2006; (03): 310-313.

Rodell M, Velicogna I, Famiglietti JS. Satellite-based estimates of groundwater depletion in India. Nature 2009; 460(7258): 999-1002.

Singhal DC, Israil M, Sharma VK, Kumar B. Evaluation of groundwater resource and estimation of its potential in Pathri Rao watershed, district Haridwar (Uttarakhand). Current Science 2010; 98(2): 162-170.

Scanlon BR, Healy RW, Cook PG. Choosing appropriate techniques for quantifying groundwater recharge. Hydrogeology Journal 2002; 10(2): 347-347.

Tóth J. A theoretical analysis of groundwater flow in small drainage basins. Journal of Geophysical Research 1963; 68(16): 4795-4812.

Kamaraju MVV, Bhattacharya A, Sreenivasa Reddy G, Rao GC, Murthy GS, Rao TCM. Groundwater potential evaluation of West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh State, India-a GIS approach. Ground Water 2010; 34(2): 318-325.

Ioka S, Onodera SI, Saito M, Rusydi A, Wakasa SA. Species and potential sources of phosphorus in groundwater in and around Mataram City, Lombok Island, Indonesia. SN Applied Sciences 2021; 3(1).

Chang M, Liu Y, Zhou C, Che HX. Hazard assessment of a catastrophic mine waste debris flow of Hou Gully, Shimian, China. Engineering Geology 2020; 275: 105733.

Li Y, Yang RC, Qu XY, Qu XW, Du YN, De S. Study on the risk assessment and forewarning model of groundwater pollution. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 2020; 13(11).

Xia RY. Groundwater resources in karst area in Southern China and sustainable utilization pattern. Journal of Groundwater Science and Engineering 2016; 04: 47-55.

Feng DM, Wu JW. Recognition model for mine water inrush sources based on SVM. Journal of Liaoning Technical University(Natural Science) 2017; 36(01): 23-27.

Xue W. Statistical Analysis and the Applications of SPSS. China Renmin University Press. 2015.

Xu YC, Li JH, Liu BZ. Reinforcement of working face by grouting in the floor in Jiaozuo mining area. Coal Geology&Exploration 2014; 42(04): 50-54.

Zhang XL, Zhang ZX, Peng SP. The application of quantification theory in identifying the sources of water bursting in mine. Journal of China University of Mining and Technology 2003; (03): 42-45.

Wei WX, Han J, Shi LQ, Lu XM, Zhang XJ. The application of modern data analysis in the prediction of water bursting in mine. China Coal Industry Publishing House. 2015.

Weber MC, Ward AS, Muste M. Modeling groundwater quality in an arid agricultural environment in the face of an uncertain climate: the case of Mewat District, India. Dissertations and Theses-Gradworks 2015; 1(4): 4-6.

Mohammed-Aslam MA, Kondoh Mohamed RP, Manoharan AN. Evaluating groundwater potential of a hard-rock aquifer using remote sensing and geophysics. Journal of Spatial Hydrology 2010; 10(2): 76-88.

Fashae OA, Tijani MN, Talabi AO, Adedeji OI. Delineation of groundwater potential zones in the crystalline basement terrain of SW-Nigeria: an integrated GIS and remote sensing approach. Applied Water Science 2014; 4: 19-38.

Vellaikannu A, Palaniraj U, Karthikeyan S, Senapathi V, Viswanathan PM, Sekar S. Identification of potential groundwater zones using a geospatial approach in Sivagangai district, South India. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 2021; 14(1).

Rahmani H, Naeini SA. Influence of non-plastic fine on static liquefaction and undrained monotonic behavior of sandy gravel. Engineering Geology 2020; 275: 105729.

Aravena R, Evans ML, Cherry JA. Stable isotopes of oxygen and nitrogen in source identification of nitrate from septic systems. Groundwater 1993; 31(2):180-186.

Dinka MO, Loiskandl W, Ndambuki JM. Hydrochemical charac-terization of various surface water and groundwater resources avail-able in Matahara areas, Fantalle Woreda of Oromiya region. JHydrol: Reg Stud 2015; 3:444-456.

Gao WD. Application of entropy weight Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation in identification of mine water inrush source. Mining Safety & Environmental Protection 2012; 39(2): 22-24

Gao WD, He YD, Li XS. The Application of Hydrochemical Method in Mine Water Inrush Source Judgment [Mining Safety & Environmental Protection 2001; (10):44-45.

Gong Houjian. Statistical Analysis of Coal Mine Water Hazard Accidents in China 2012-2016. Inner Mongolia coal economy 2017; (23):107-108.

Huang QB, Wang YS, Liu XM. Hydrographic and geochemical characteristics and genetic analysis of Tangdou area [J]. Groundwater 2008; (6):6-8.

Ian D. Clark, Peter Fritz. Environmental isotopes in hydro- geology.Zhengzhou: Yellow River Water Press 2006; P30-33.

Ji XL, Xie RT, Hao Y, LuJ. Quantitative identification of nitrate pollution sources and uncertainty analysis based on dual isotope approach in an agricultural watershed. Environ Pollut 2017; 229:586-594.

Ju QD, Hu YB, Zang SY. A Study on Identification Method of Mine Water Inrush Source Based on Principal Component Analysis and Bayesian Discriminating Method. Coal Engineering 2018; 50(12):90-94.

Kou WJ. Groundwater chemical classification methods of thinking.Western Resources 2012; (5): 108-109.

Liu TQ. Influence of mining activities on mine rockmass and control engineering. Journal of China Coal Society 1995; (1):1-5.

Meng ZP, Li GQ, Xie XT. A geological assessment method of floor water inrush risk and its application. Eng Geol 2012; 143-144:51-60.

Piper AM. A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water-analyses. Eos Transactions American Geophysical Union 1994; 25(6):27-39

Pan GY,Wang SN,Sun XY,Fang SK. Application of Isotopic Technique in Identification of Mine Water Inrush Source.Mining Safety & Environmental Protection 2009; 36(01):32-34+90.

Qu XY,Shi LQ. The Identification of Mine Water Inrush Source Based on Matlab Factor Analysis and Distance Discriminating Model,. Coal Science and Technology 2018; 46(08):178-182.

Shen ZL. Hydrographic and geochemical foundations. Beijing: Geological Publishing House 1986.

Song ZQ. Practical mine pressure control. Xuzhou: China University of Mining Press 1988; P50-55.

Sun WY, Wu Y, Zhuo Y, T MS, He M. Hydrochemistry Characteristic of Shallow Groundwater in Enyang County,Bazhong City 2016; 16(27):114-121.

Sun YJ Yang GY, Zheng L. Based on the GIS of mine water inrush source discrimination system research. Coalfield geology and exploration 2007; 35(2):34-37.

Telci IT, Aral MM. Contaminant source location identi fication in river networks using water quality monitoring systems for exposure analysis. Water Qual, Expo Health 2011; 2(3):205-218.

Tripathy DP, Ala CK. Identification of safety hazards in Indian underground coal mines. Journal of Sustainable Mining 2018; 17(4):175-l 83.

W DC, Zang RQ, Shi YH. Hydrogeological fundamentals. Beijing: Geology Publishing House 1995; P61-62.

Wang XY, Xu T, Hang D. Application of distance discriminance in identifying water inrush resource in similar coalmine. Journal of China Coal Society 2011; 36(8):1354-1358.

Wei JC, Xiao LL, Niu C. Analysis on Correlation Factors of Mine Water Hazard Accidents in China 2001-2013. China Science and Technology Paper 2015; 10(3): 336-341,369.

Wu GJ. The application of Fuzzy mathematical method to evaluation of groundwater pollution. Jiangxi Geology 1999; (3): 73-78.

Xu HL. Water resources development and protection. Beijing: Geological Publishing House 2001; P98-100.

Xu X, Wang GZ. The Application of BP Neural Network in Identification of Mine Water inrush Source. Colliery engineering 2016; 35(7): 144-146.

Xue JK. Quantitative analysis of mine water inrush using isotope method. Coal Engineering 2019; 51(12): 150-153.

Yu KL, Yang YS, Zang CP. Application of Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method in Discriminating Mine Water inrush Source. Metal Mines 2007; (3):47-50.

Zhang RG, Qian JZ, Ma L, Qin H. Application of extension identification method in mine water inrush source discrimination. Journal of Coal 2009; 34(1):33-38.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.