Physical-Chemical Properties of Water-in-Diesel Fuel Emulsions
Keywords:Water-in-diesel emulsion, viscosity, shear rate, shear stress
The addition of water dispersed phase into the diesel continuous phase will lead to the formation of water-in-diesel (W/D) emulsion, which significantly reduces the pollution level of NOx and particulate matters in the diesel engines. Small amount, 0.2% by volume, of surfactant material was necessary in the preparation of a stable W/D emulsion. The study of the physical and chemical properties of stable W/D emulsions is important to understand the flow behavior characteristics of these emulsions. Pure diesel fuel and three samples of W/D emulsions (10%, 20% and 30% by volume water) were examined in this study. The following properties are measured according to the corresponding ASTM standards for the pure diesel and its emulsions with 10%, 20% and 30% water: heating value, pour point, flash point, distillation data, density, viscosity, calculated cetane index, total acid number, and sulfur content. The addition of water in the emulsion caused a drop in the calorific value, final boiling point, cetane index, total acid number, and sulfur content. Increasing the water also increased the pour point, flash point, and density.
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