A Preliminary Assessment of the Transmutation Potentialities for an ITER-like FW Sector Loaded with MA
Keywords:SERPENT, MCNP, MCAM, burnup calculations, minor actinides, hybrid reactors
The fusion-fission hybrid reactor is a promising technology that is likely to assume an increasingly important role in the global energy scene in the coming years. This kind of reactor can use both the nuclear fusion and fission processes to produce energy: neutrons from fusion reactions are used to sustain the fission of a sub-critical system. This method allows to have an intrinsically safe facility, with higher efficiency than a fusion reactor itself and with a harder neutron energy spectrum than a fission reactor, which could be suitable for nuclear waste transmutation. This paper, in particular, analyzes a type of hybrid reactor for the transmutation of Minor Actinides (MA). Nuclear waste, in the oxide form, is inserted as an element of the First Wall (FW) of an ITER-like fusion reactor. The aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of the transmutation of the MA characterized by higher long term radiotoxicity into shorter lived nuclides. The neutron transport in a detailed 3D geometrical model of the ITER reactor (B-lite) was performed by MCNP6 code, while the transmutation of the MA loaded in a single element of the FW was performed by SERPENT2 code. A pulsed ITER-like irradiation scenario was used. The analysis, which must be considered as a preliminary feasibility study, lead to very promising results, which could be further improved with a longer DEMO-like irradiation scenario and a larger number of MA loaded (“fission waste”) elements loaded in the FW.
Martinez-Val JM, Piera M, Abánades A and, Lafuente A. Hybrid Nuclear Reactors, in: Krivit SB, Lehr JH, Kingery TB. Nuclear Energy Encyclopedia - Science, Technology and Applications 2011; 435-455. J Wiley & s.
Wu Y. Progress in fusion-driven hybrid system studies in China. Fusion Engineering and Design 2002; 63-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0920-3796(02)00239-9
Bethe HA. The fusion hybrid. Physics Today 1979; 5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2995553
Bender DJ. Performance parameters for fusion-fission power systems. Nuclear Technology 1979; 44.
Youssef MZ, Conn RW and Vogelsang WF. Tritium and fissile fuel exchange between hybrids, fission power reactors and tritium produce reactors. Nuclear Technology 1980; vol. 47.
Presley JK, Harms AA, Heindler M. Nuclear fuel trajectories of fusion-fission symbionts, Nuclear Science and Engineering 1980; vol. 74.
Abdel-Khalik SI, Jansen P, x Kebler P and Klumpp P. Impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future, Atomkernenergie 1981; vol. 38.
Berwald DH and Maniscalco J. An economics method for symbiotic fusion-fission electricity generator systems. Fusion Science and Technology 1981; vol. 1.
Rose RP. The case for the fusion hybrid. Journal of Fusion Energy 1981; vol. 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01050661
Lee JD and Moir RW. Fission-suppressed blankets for fissile fuel breeding fusion reactors. Journal of Fusion Energy 1981; vol. 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01050362
Greenspan E and Miley GH. Fissile and synthetic fuel production ability of hybrid reactors, Atomkernenergie 1981; vol. 38.
Harms AA and Gordon CW. Fissile fuel breeding potential with paired fusion-fission reactors. Annals of Nuclear Energy 1976; vol. 3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4549(76)90025-6
Taczanowski S. Neutron multiplier alternatives for fusion reactor blankets. Annals of Nuclear Energy 1981; vol. 8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4549(81)90039-6
Harms AA and Heindler M. Nuclear Energy Synergetics, Plenum Press 1982. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-9266-2
Moir RW. The fusion breeder. Journal of Fusion Energy 1982; vol. 2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01063686
Moir RW. Design of a He-cooled, molten salt fusion breeder. Journal of Fusion Energy 1985; vol. 8.
Moir RW, Lee JD, Coops MS, Fulton FJ, Neef WSJr, Berwald DH, et al. Fusion breeder reactor design studies. Fusion Science and Technology 1983; vol. 4.
Lee JD. US-DOE fusion breeder program-blanket design and system performance. Atomkernenergie 1984; vol. 44.
Piet SJ. Safety evaluation of the blanket comparison and selection study. Fusion Technology 1985; vol. 8.
Garber J and Maya I. Safety assessment of the fusion breeder. Fusion Technology 1985; vol. 8.
Leonard Jr. BR. A review of fusion-fission (hybrid) concepts. Nuclear Technology 1973; vol. 20. http://dx.doi.org/10.13182/NT73-1
Powell C and Hahm DJ. Energy balance of a hybrid fusionfission reactor. Atomkernergie 1973; vol. 21.
Lidsky LM. Fusion-fission systems: hybrid symbiotic and Augean. Nuclear Fusion 1975; vol. 15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/15/1/016
Harms AA. Hierarchical systematics of fusion-fission energy systems. Nuclear Fusion 1975; vol. 15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/15/5/023
Cook NG and Maniscalco JA. Uranium-233 breeding and neutron multiplying blankets for fusion reactors. Nuclear Technology 1976; vol. 30.
Maniscalco JA. Fusion-fission hybrid concepts for laser induced fusion. Nuclear Technology 1976; vol. 28.
Blinkin VL and Novikov VM. Symbiotic system of a fusion and a fission reactor with very simple fuel reprocessing. Nuclear Fusion 1978; vol. 18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/18/7/002
Takahashi H, Grand P, Powell JR, Steinberg M, Kouts HJC. Fissile fuel production by linear accelerator. Transaction of American Nuclear Society 1982; vol. 43.
Sahin S. Neutronic analysis of fast hybrid thermoionic reactors. Atomkernenergie 1981; vol. 39.
Saracco P, Marotta R, Lomonaco G, Chersola D, Mansani L. A preliminary study of an improved area method, adapted to short time transients in sub-critical systems. Proceedings of the International Conference on Physics of Reactors (PHYSOR 2014), Kyoto, Japan, September-October 2014.
Dulla S, Nervo M, Ravetto P, Saracco P, Lomonaco G and Carta M. Reflector effects on the kinetic response in subcritical systems. Proceedings of the Joint International Conference on Mathematics and Computation, Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications and the Monte Carlo Method (ANS M&C+SNA+MC 2015), Nashville, USA, April 2015.
Saracco P and Ricco G. Various Operating Regimes of a Subcritical System as a Function of Subcriticality in One Group Theory. Nuclear Science and Engineering 2009; vol. 162. http://dx.doi.org/10.13182/NSE162-167
Ripani M, Frambati S, Mangani L, Buzzone M, Reale M, Monti S, et al. Study of an intrinsically safe infrastructure for training and research on nuclear technologies. European Physical Journal–Web of Conferences 2014; vol. 79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/20137902004
Ridikas D, Plukiene R, Plukis A and Cheng ET. Fusion– fission hybrid system for nuclear waste transmutation (I): Characterization of the system and burn-up calculations. Progress in Nuclear Energy 2006; vol. 48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnucene.2005.09.004
Plukiene R, Plukis A, Ridikas D and Cheng ET. Fusion– fission hybrid system for nuclear waste transmutation (II): From the burn-up optimization to the tests of different data libraries. Progress in Nuclear Energy 2006; vol. 480. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnucene.2005.09.005
Mehlhorn TA, Cipiti BB, Olson CL and Rochau GE. Fusion– fission hybrids for nuclear waste transmutation: A synergistic step between Gen-IV fission and fusion reactors. Fusion Engineering and Design 2008; vol. 83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2008.05.003
Simonen TC, Moir RW, Molvik AW and Ryutov DD. A 14 MeV fusion neutron source for material and blanket development and fission fuel production. Nuclear Fusion 2013; vol. 53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/53/6/063002
Kotschenreuthera M, Valanjua PM, Mahajana SM and Schneider EA. Fusion–Fission Transmutation Scheme— Efficient destruction of nuclear waste, Fusion Engineering and Design 2009; vol. 84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2008.11.019
Zhao J, Yang Y and Zhou Z. Study of thorium–uranium based molten salt blanket in a fusion–fission hybrid reactor. Fusion Engineering and Design 2012; vol. 87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2012.03.020
Ni M, Song Y, Jin M, Jiang J and Huang Q. Design and analysis on tritium system of multi-functional experimental fusion–fission hybrid reactor (FDS-MFX). Fusion Engineering and Design 2012; vol. 87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2012.02.073
Ma XB, Chen YX, Quan GP, Wang LZ and Lu DG. Neutronics analysis of the power flattening and minor actinides burning in a thorium-based fusion–fission hybrid reactor blanket. Fusion Engineering and Design 2012; vol. 87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2012.06.010
Ma XB, Chen YX, Wang Y, Zhang PZ, Cao B, Lu DG, et al. Neutronic calculations of a thorium-based fusion–fission hybrid reactor blanket. Fusion Engineering and Design 2010; vol. 85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2010.08.044
Piera M, Lafuente A, Abánades A and Martinez-Val JM. Hybrid reactors: Nuclear breeding or energy production?. Energy Conversion and Management 2010; vol. 51 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2010.01.025
Günay M. Assessment of the neutronic performance of some alternative fluids in a fusion–fission hybrid reactor by using Monte Carlo method. Annals of Nuclear Energy 2013; vol. 60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anucene.2013.04.036
Zheng Y, Zu T, Wu H, Cao L and Yang C. The neutronics studies of a fusion fission hybrid reactor using pressure tube blankets. Fusion Engineering and Design 2012; vol. 87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2012.05.001
Wang M, Jiang J, Liu J, Bai Y and Hu Y. Neutronics performance evaluation of fast-fission fuel breeding blankets for a fusion–fission hybrid reactor. Fusion Engineering and Design 2010; vol. 85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2010.08.012
Matsunaka M, Shido S, Kondo K, Miyamaru H and Murata I. Burnup calculation of fusion–fission hybrid energy system with thorium cycle. Fusion Engineering and Design 2007; vol. 82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2007.03.047
Gerstner E. Nuclear energy: The hybrid returns, Nature 2009; vol. 460. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/460025a
Lomonaco G, Frasciello O, Osipenko M, Ricco G and Ripani M. An intrinsically safe facility for forefront research and training on nuclear technologies – Burnup and transmutation. European Physical Journal – Plus 2014; vol. 129.
Cerullo N and Lomonaco G. Generation IV reactor designs, operation and fuel cycle, in: I. Crossland, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Science and Engineering, pp. 333-395, Woodhead Publishing, 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.1533/9780857096388.3.333
Bomboni E, Cerullo N, Lomonaco G and Romanello V. A Critical Review of the Recent Improvements in Minimizing Nuclear Waste by Innovative Gas-Cooled Reactors. Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2008/265430
Mazzini G, Bomboni E, Cerullo N, Fridman E, Lomonaco G and Shwageraus E. The Use of Th in HTR: State of the Art and Implementation in Th/Pu Fuel Cycles. Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations 2009.
Bomboni E, Cerullo N and Lomonaco G. Assessment of LWR-HTR-GCFR Integrated Cycle. Science and Technology of Nuclear Installation 2009.
Bomboni E, Cerullo N and Lomonaco G. Erratum for Assessment of LWR-HTR-GCFR Integrated Cycle. Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/815394
Chersola D, Lomonaco G, Marotta R and Mazzini G. Comparison between SERPENT and MONTEBURNS codes applied to burnup calculations of a GFR-like configuration. Nuclear Engineering and Design 2014; vol. 273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nucengdes.2014.03.035
Cerullo N, Bufalino D, Forasassi G, Lomonaco G, Rocchi P and Romanello V. The capabilities of HTRs to burn actinides and to optimize plutonium exploitation. Proccedings of the 12th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE '04, Arlington, USA 2004; 1: 495-501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/icone12-49423
Castelliti D, Bomboni E, Cerullo N, Lomonaco G and Parisi C. GCFR Coupled Neutronic and Thermal-Fluid-Dynamics Analyses for a Core Containing Minor Actinides. Science and Technology of Nuclear Installation 2009.
Vezzoni B, Cerullo N, Forasassi G, Fridman E, Lomonaco G, Romanello V, et al. Preliminary Evaluation of a Nuclear Scenario Involving Innovative Gas Cooled Reactors. Science and Technology of Nuclear Installation 2009.
Lomonaco G, Grassi W and Cerullo N. The Influence of the Packing Factor on the Fuel Temperature Hot Spots in a Particle-Bed GCFR. Science and Technology of Nuclear Installation 2009.
Bomboni E, Cerullo N and Lomonaco G. Analysis of pebble fuelled zone modeling influence on HTR core calculations. Nuclear Science and Engineering 2009; vol. 162. http://dx.doi.org/10.13182/NSE162-282
Bomboni E, Cerullo N and Lomonaco G. Simplified models for pebble-bed HTR core burn-up calculations with Monteburns2.0©. Annals of Nuclear Energy 2012; vol. 40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anucene.2011.09.018
Bomboni E, Cerullo N, Fridman E, Lomonaco G and Shwageraus E. Comparison among MCNP-based depletion codes applied to burnup calculations of pebble-bed HTR lattices. Nuclear Engineering and Design 2010; vol. 204.
Cerullo N, Chersola D, Lomonaco G and Marotta R. The GFR in the frame of advanced fuel cycles: the use of DA as an improved way to minimize the MA content in the SNF. Journal of Energy and Power Sources 2014; 1(5): 278-286.
Chersola D, Lomonaco G and Mazzini G. Cross Sections Influence on Monte Carlo Based Burnup Codes, Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE22). Prague Czech Republic, July 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/icone22-31049
Chersola D, Lomonaco G and Mazzini G. Cross Sections Influence on Monte Carlo Based Burnup Codes Applied to a GFR-like configuration. Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science 2015; vol. 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.4029521
Moses E, Diaz de la Rubia T, Storm E, Latkowski J, Farmer J, Abbott R, et al. Lehman II, A Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on Laser Inertial Fusion Energy. Fusion Science and Technology 2009; vol. 56.
Goorley T, James M, Booth T, Brown F, Bull J, Cox LJ, et al. Initial MCNP6 Release Overview. Nuclear Technology 2012; vol. 180. http://dx.doi.org/10.13182/NT11-135
Leppänen J and Isotalo A. Burnup Calculation methodology in the Serpent2 Monte Carlo Code. Proceedings of PHYSOR 2012 (Advances in Reactor Physics Linking Research, Industry, and Education). Knoxville (Tennessee), USA, April 2012.
Leppänen J. Development of A New Monte Carlo Reactor Physics Code. D.Sc. Thesis. Helsinki University of Technology 2007.
Pusa M and Leppänen J. Computing the Matrix Exponential in Burnup Calculations. Nuclear Science and Engineering 2010; vol. 164. http://dx.doi.org/10.13182/NSE09-14
Isotalo AE and Aarnio PA. Higher order methods for burnup calculations with Bateman solutions. Annals of Nuclear Energy 2011; vol. 38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anucene.2011.04.022
Sawan ME and Bohm TD. Impact of FENDL-2.1 Updates on Nuclear Analysis of ITER and Other Fusion Systems. Journal of the Korean Physical Society 2011; vol. 59.
Cabellos O. Processing of the JEFF-3.1 Cross Section Library into a Continuous Energy Monte Carlo Radiation Transport and Criticality Data Library. OECD NEA Data Bank 2006.
Wu Y and FDS Team. CAD-based interface programs for fusion neutron transport simulation. Fusion Engineering and Design 2009; vol. 84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2008.12.041
Scarfò D. Application of Monte Carlo calculation codes for the study of minor actinides transmutation in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, M.Sc. Thesis in Mechanical, Energy and Aerospace Engineering, Tutors: Dr. G. Lomonaco, Dr. B. Caiffi, Ing. D. Chersola, University of Genova - Polytechnic School - DIME/TEC - GeNERG, Academic Year 2013-2014.
Chersola D, Lomonaco G and Marotta R. The VHTR and GFR and their use in innovative symbiotic fuel cycles. Progress in Nuclear Energy 2015; vol. 83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnucene.2014.12.005
Muzzioli A. ITER's state of the art and its behaviour evaluated through Monte Carlo neutronic codes, B.Sc. Thesis in Mechanical Engineering, Tutors: Dr. G. Lomonaco, Ing. D. Chersola, University of Genova - Polytechnic School - DIME/TEC - GeNERG, Academic Year 2012-2013.
Wu Y, Jiang J, Wang M, Jin M and FDS Team. A fusiondriven subcritical system concept based on viable technologies. Nuclear Fusion 2011; vol. 51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/51/10/103036
ITER Organization et al. ITER Internal Report ""Blite v3 R121217"". IDM 9KKVQR December 2012.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.