Typical Features Contrast of Hot Water Flooding and Steam Flooding


Steam flooding
hot water flooding
relative permeability
water cut

How to Cite

LI Fang-Fang, SHI Changlin, Yao Weiying, GAO Zhenglong, WU Wei, LIU Shanshan. Typical Features Contrast of Hot Water Flooding and Steam Flooding. Int. J. Petrol. Technol. [Internet]. 2018 Jan. 17 [cited 2022 Aug. 12];5:1-6. Available from: https://www.avantipublishers.com/index.php/ijpt/article/view/817


 Steam flooding and hot water flooding are the two main important thermal recovery methods for heavy oil reservoirs. Due to physicochemical properties difference of steam and hot water, the mechanism and production performance of hot water and steam flooding vary greatly. In this paper, steam and hot water flooding experiments under different temperature were conducted using Qi 40 heavy oil in Liaohe Oilfield in China to obtain typical features such as displacement efficiency, relative permeability, water cut and dimensionless productivity index of the two. The results show that steam and hot water flooding performance are quite different from each other under the same temperature. Compared with water flooding, displacement efficiency of steam flooding is 8.98%, 10.97% higher under 100℃ and 200℃ respectively, in addition, oil relative permeability is much higher and residual oil saturation is much lower at the same temperature. Water state and temperature are main reasons of displacement efficiency, relative permeability and productivity index difference; vapor state and higher temperature resulting in higher oil recovery, oil relative permeability and oil production index.


Abdullah FA, Meshal A and Ridha G. Experimental Evaluation of Heavy Oil Recovery by Hot Water Injection in a Middle Eastern Reservoir, SPE 120089, SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Kingdom of Bahrain 2009; 15-18.

Cao Y, Liu D, Zhang Z, et al. Steam Channeling Control in the Steam Flooding of Super Heavy Oil Reservoirs. Shengli Oilfield. Petroleum Exploration & Development 2012; 39(6): 785-790. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1876-3804(12)60105-0

Cynthia Ross, Maki Ikeda, Guo-Qing Tang, et al. Alteration of Reservoir Diatomites by Hot Water Injection. SPE-114183- MS, SPE Western Regional and Pacific Section AAPG Joint Meeting, 29 March-4 April, 2008, Bakersfield, California, USA. https://doi.org/10.2118/114183-MS

Dong Xiaohu, Liu Huiqing, Zhang Hongling, et al. Flexibility Research of Hot-Water Flooding followed Steam Injection in Heavy Oil Reservoirs. SPE 144012, SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 2011; 19-21. https://doi.org/10.2118/144012-MS

Dietrich JK. The Displacement of Heavy Oil from Diatomite Using Hot Water and Steam. SPE 129705, SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium held in Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA 2010; 24-28. https://doi.org/10.2118/129705-MS

Harmsen GJ and Koninklijke. Oil Recovery by Hot-Water and Steam Injection.WPC-14228, 8th World Petroleum Congress, Moscow, USSR 1971; 13-18.

Liu Wenzhang. The Development Models of Heavy Oil Reservoirs by Thermal Recovery [M], Beijing: Petroleum Industry Press, 1998.

Bulter RM. Thermal Recovery of Oil and Bitumen. M Calgary, Alberta Canada 1991.

Eson RL and Cooke RW. A Successful High-Temperature Gel System to Reduce Steam Channeling. Paper SPE 24665 presented at the 67th Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers held in Washington. DC 1992; 4-7. https://doi.org/10.2118/24665-MS

Schrmbre JM and Tang GQ. An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Temperature on Recovery of Heavy Oil from Diatomite. SPE 82915, 2005.

Tang GQ and Kovscek AR. An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Temperature on Recovery of Heavy Oil from Diatomite. SPEJ 2004; 9(2): 163-179. https://doi.org/10.2118/83915-PA

Wang Dawei, Zhou Naiqiang and Mu Kai. Heavy Oil Thermal Recovery Technology Status and Development Trend. Western Exploration Engineering 2008; 10(12): 129-131.

Wang Tao, Zhu Weihong, Yang Shenglai, et al. Application of Relative Permeability Curves to Establish of Formulas of Fluid Productivity Index and Injectivity Index of Horizontal well. J Xinjiang Petroleum Geology 2009; 30(2): 235-237.

Zhang Fangli, Liu Qicheng and Liu Baoliang. Heavy Oil Development Experiment Technology and Application. M Beijing: Petroleum Industry Press 2007.

Zhang Yitang. Thermal Oil Recovery Enhanced Oil Recovery Technology. M Beijing: Petroleum Industry Press 2006.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Petroleum Technology