Physical-Chemical Properties of Water-in-Diesel Fuel Emulsions


Water-in-diesel emulsion
shear rate
shear stress

How to Cite

Mohamed Y. E. Selim, Mamdouh T. Ghannam, Adel M. M. Hussein. Physical-Chemical Properties of Water-in-Diesel Fuel Emulsions. Int. J. Petrol. Technol. [Internet]. 2015 Dec. 31 [cited 2022 Aug. 12];2(2):45-52. Available from:


The addition of water dispersed phase into the diesel continuous phase will lead to the formation of water-in-diesel (W/D) emulsion, which significantly reduces the pollution level of NOx and particulate matters in the diesel engines. Small amount, 0.2% by volume, of surfactant material was necessary in the preparation of a stable W/D emulsion. The study of the physical and chemical properties of stable W/D emulsions is important to understand the flow behavior characteristics of these emulsions. Pure diesel fuel and three samples of W/D emulsions (10%, 20% and 30% by volume water) were examined in this study. The following properties are measured according to the corresponding ASTM standards for the pure diesel and its emulsions with 10%, 20% and 30% water: heating value, pour point, flash point, distillation data, density, viscosity, calculated cetane index, total acid number, and sulfur content. The addition of water in the emulsion caused a drop in the calorific value, final boiling point, cetane index, total acid number, and sulfur content. Increasing the water also increased the pour point, flash point, and density.


Lin C and Pan J. Corrosion Characteristics of Furnaces Burning with Emulsified Diesel Oil Contained Sodium Sulfate. Corros Prev Control 2001; 47(3): 83.

Nicholls J, El-Messiri I and Newhall H. Inlet Manifold Water Injection for Control of Nitrogen Oxides-Theory and Experiment. SAE paper number 690018.

Lestz S, Melton R and Rambi E. Feasibility of Cooling Diesel Engines by Introducing Water Into the Combustion Chamber. SAE paper number 750129.

Andrews G, Bartle K, Pang S, Nurein, A and Williams P. The Reduction in Diesel Particulate Emissions Using Emulsified Fuels. SAE paper number 880348.

Mingyuan L, Christy A and Sjoblom J. In: Sjoblom Ed. Emulsions – a Fundamental and Practical Approach, Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, V363 1992.

Pilehvari A, Saadevandi B, Halvaci M and Clark D. In: Roco MC Ed. Pipeline Transportation of Heavy Crude as Emulsions. Proc 3rd Int Symp Liquid Solid Flows; ASME V75: New York 1988.

Sherman P. In: Becher Ed. Encyclopedia of Emulsion Technology. Dekker New York 1983.

Bobra M. In: Proceeding of Arctic and Marine Oil Spill Program. Environmental Canada - Minister of Supply and Services: Ottawa 1990.

Eley D, Hey M, Symonds J and Willison J. Electron Micrograph of Emulsions of Water in Crude Petroleum. J Colloid Int Sci 1976; 54: 462.

Muzio L and Quartucy G. Implementing NOx Control: Research to Application. Prog Energy Combustion Sci 1997; 23(3): 233.

Lin C and Wang K. Diesel Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics Using Three-Phase Emulsions as Fuel. Fuel 2004; 83: 537.

Adiga K and Shah D. On the Vaporization Behavior of waterin- Oil Microemulsions. Combust Flame 1990; 80: 412.

Wang C and Law C. Microexplosion of droplets Under High Pressure. Combust Flame 1985; 59: 53.

Crookes R, Kiannejad F and Nazha M. Systematic Assessment of Combustion Characteristics of Biofuels and Emulsions with Water for Use as Diesel Engine Fuels. Energy Convers Manage 1997; 38: 1785.

Crookes R, Kiannejad F and Nazha M. Seed Oil Biofuel of Low Cetane Number: The Effect of Water Emulsification on Diesel Engine Operation and Emissions. J Inst Energy 1995; 68: 142.

Crookes R, Nazha M and Kiannejad F. Single and Multi Cylinder Diesel Engine Tests with Vegetable Oil Emulsions. SAE paper number 922230.

Sheng H, Chen L and Wu C. The Drolet Group Micro- Explosions in W/O Diesel Fuel emulsion Sprays. SAE paper number 950855.

MYE Selim. Reducing the viscosity of Jojoba Methyl Ester diesel fuel and effects on diesel engine performance and roughness. Energy Conversion and Management 2009; 50(7); 1781-1788.