Degradation of Phenol With A Microwave-Uv Irradiation Treatment System Using NANO-TiO2
Keywords:Phenol-water, dielectric properties, microwave, hydrothermal TiO2, Sol-Gel TiO2, Nano-TiO2.
The degradation of phenol from various industrial effluents becomes essential and studied in this work. The microwave (MW), ultra-violet (UV) and combination treatment systems were designed and TiO2 nanoparticles were used as photocatalyst for the degradation of 1500ppm phenol in a solution. It was observed that the degradation efficiency was less than 10% in both MW and MW-UV systems without a catalyst. However, the addition of TiO2 particles in MW-UV system has increased the phenol degradation efficiency significantly. The extent of increase in degradation efficiency is dependent on the structural and optical characteristics of TiO2, which is affected by the TiO2 preparation method. In this work, the TiO2 nanoparticles with anatase structure were synthesized by hydrothermal (HT) and sol-gel (SG) methods. The synthesized materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis, SEM, high resolution TEM and BET method. The higher degradation efficiency of 24% shown by MW-UV-TiO2 (HT) system in 120 minutes as compared to 20% shown by MW-UV-TiO2 (SG) system could be due to higher surface area and better textural properties of TiO2 prepared by hydrothermal treatment. The effect of various initial concentration of phenol (500-1500ppm) on degradation efficiency of MW-UV-TiO2 (HT) system revealed that the increase in the initial phenol concentration decreased the phenol degradation efficiency.
Patsoura A, Kondarides DI and Verykios XE. Catalysis Today 2007; 124: 94-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2007.03.028
Rey A, Carbajo J, Adan C, Faraldos M, Bahamonde A. et al. Chemical Engineering Journal 2011; 174: 134-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.08.061
Verma Dissertation A. University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon 2014.
Zhihui A, Peng Y and Xiaohua L. Chemosphere 2005; 60: 824-827. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.04.027
Wang CC, Ying JY. Chemistry of Materials 1999; 11: 3113- 3120. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm990180f
Ania CO, Menendez JA, Parra JB and Pis JJ. Carbon 2004; 42: 1383-1387. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2004.01.010
Jones DA, Lelyveld TP, Mavrofidis SD, Kingman SW, NJ. Miles, Resources, conservation and recycling 2002; 34: 75- 90. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-3449(01)00088-X
Muniz EC, Goes MS, Silva JJ, Varela JA, Joanni E, et al. Ceramics International 2011; 37: 1017-1024. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2010.11.014
Granados G, Martinez F and Paez-Mozo EA. Catalysis today 2005; 107: 589-594. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2005.07.021
Moussavi G, Mahmoudi M and Barikbin B. Water research 2009; 43: 1295-1302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.12.026
Senturk HB, Ozdesa D, Gundogdua A, Durana C, Soylakb M, et al. Mater 2009; 172: 353-362.
Huang J, Wang X, Jin Q, Liu Y and Wang Y. Journal of environmental management 2007; 84: 229-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.05.007
Gully JR. Study of oil sands sludge reclamation under the tailing sludge abandonment research program. Final Report. Canada Centre for Mineral and energy Technology (CANMET), Energy, Mines and Resources Canada, Edmonton, Alta 1992.
Mehrotra K, Yablonsky GS and Ray AK. Industrial and engineering chemistry research 2003; 42: 2273-2281. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie0209881
Porkodi K and Arokiamary SD. Materials Characterization 2007; 58: 495-503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2006.04.019
Barakat MA, Schaeffer H, Hayes G and Ismat-Shah S. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2005; 57: 23-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2004.10.001
Choquette-Labbe M, Shewa WA, Lalman JA and Shanmugam SR. Water 2014; 6: 1785-1806. https://doi.org/10.3390/w6061785
MacKinnon MD and Sethi A. A comparison of the physical and chemical properties of the tailing ponds at the syncrude and Suncor oil sands plants. In Proceedings of our Petroleum Future Conference, Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA), Edmonton, Alta 1993.
Mackinnon MD and Retallack JT. Ann Arbor Science, Denver, Colo 1981; 185-210.
Kavitha M, Gopinathan C and Pandi P. International Journal of Advancements in Research and Technology 2013; 2: 102- 108.
Ba-Abbad MM, Kadhum AAH, Mohamad AB, Takriff MS and Sopian K. Int J Electrochem Sci 2012; 7: 4871-4888.
Rehan M, Lai X and Kale GM. Cryst Eng Comm 2011; 13: 3725-3732. https://doi.org/10.1039/c0ce00781a
Vohra MS and Tanaka K. Water Research 2003; 37: 3992- 3996. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(03)00333-6
Strosher MT and Peake E. Characterization of organic constituents in waters and wastewaters of Athabasca Oil Sands mining area. Report No. 20. Alberta Oil Sands Environmental Research Program (AOSERP), Alberta Environment, Edmonton, Alta 1978.
Hafizah N and Sopyan I. International Journal of Photoenergy 2009.
Allen NS, Edge M, Verran J, Stratton J, Maltby J and Bygott C. Polymer degradation and stability 2008; 93: 1632-1646. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2008.04.015
Kartal OE, Erol M and Oguz H. Chemical engineering and technology 2001; 26: 645-649. https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-4125(200106)24:6<645::AIDCEAT645> 3.0.CO;2-L
Klan P, Hajek M and Církva V. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 2001; 140: 185-189. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1010-6030(01)00422-1
Kumar P. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (2010).
Muller P, Klan P and Cırkva V. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 2003; 158: 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1010-6030(03)00101-1
Alnaizy R and Akgerman A. Advances in Environmental Research 2000; 4: 233-244. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1093-0191(00)00024-1
Madill RE, Orzechowski MT, Chen G, Brownlee BG and Bunce NJ. Environ Toxicol 2001; 16: 197-208. https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.1025
Badoga S, Mouli KC, Soni KK, Dalai AK and Adjaye J. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2012; 125: 67-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2012.05.015
Badoga S, Sharma RV, Dalai AK and Adjaye J. Fuel, 2014; 128: 30-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.02.056
Vilhunen SH and Sillanpaa ME. Journal of hazardous materials 2009; 161: 1530-1534. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.05.010
Horikoshi S, Hidaka H and Serpone N. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 2004; 16: 221-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nainr.2003.07.003
Kataoka S, Tompkins DT, Zeltner WA and Anderson MA. Journal of photochemistry and photobiology A: Chemistry 2002; 148: 323-330. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1010-6030(02)00059-X
Mishra S. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (2009).
Lai TL, Lai YL, Lee CC, Shu YY and Wang CB. Catalysis Today 2008; 131: 105-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2007.10.039
Thompson TL and Yates JT. Chemical Reviews 2006; 106: 4428-4453. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr050172k
Chhabra V, Pillai V, Mishra BK, Morrone A and Shah DO. Langmuir 1995; 11: 3307-3311. https://doi.org/10.1021/la00009a007
Rogers VV, Wickstrom M, Liber K and MacKinnon MD. Toxicological Sciences 2002; 66: 347-355. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/66.2.347
Bahnemann W, Muneer M and Haque MM. Catalysis Today 2007; 124: 133-148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2007.03.031
Chen X and Mao SS. Chemical reviews 2007; 107: 2891- 2959. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr0500535
Liu X and Yu G. Chemosphere 2006; 63: 228-235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.08.030
Liu X, Zhang Q, Zhang G and Wang R. Chemosphere 2008; 72: 1655-1658. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.05.030
Bi XY, Peng W, Jiang H, Xu HY, Shi SJ and Huang JL. Journal of Environmental Sciences 2007; 19: 1510-1515. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(07)60246-0
Zhang X, Hayward DO, Lee C and Mingos DMP. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2001; 33: 137-148. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0926-3373(01)00171-0
Zhang X, Hayward DO and Mingos DMP. Catalysis Letters 2003; 88: 33-38. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023530715368
Hsieh YH, Wang KH, Ko RC and Chang CY. Water science and technology 2000; 42: 95-99.
Masuda Y and Kato K. Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan 2009; 117: 373-376. https://doi.org/10.2109/jcersj2.117.373
Ai Z, Yang P and Lu X. Journal of hazardous materials 2005; 124: 147-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.04.027
Gao Z, Shao Gui Y, Sung C and Hong J. Separation and Purification Technology 2007; 58: 24-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2006.12.020
Levesque CM. MSc Thesis 'Oil sands process water and tailings pond contaminant transport and fate: physical, chemical and biological processes'. University of British Columbia (Vancouver) July 2014.
How to Cite
This article is published with Open-Access, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.