Experimental Study on Pyrolysis of Non-Metallic Materials Separated from Printed Circuit Board Waste via TGA and Analytical Vacuum Fast Pyrolysis of Non-Metallic Fraction of Printed Circuit Board Waste after Copper Separation
Keywords:Electronic waste, vacuum fast pyrolysis, printed circuit board waste, non-metallic fraction.
In just over half a century electronic equipment and products have revolutionized human lifestyle. At the product’s end of life, e-waste, its components material and other materials have influenced and infiltrated environment in every part of globe. The hazardous effect of plastic materials and debris to biodiversity is well established, but mitigation and planning are often hampered by lack of quantitative data on waste accumulation patterns in landfill. Here we document a study on the pyrolysis of non-metallic material of printed circuit board, the basic elemental part of electronic waste. The non-metallic material is separated from printed circuit board waste during the copper separation processes and was found in powder form at average size up to 177 μm. The purpose of this study is to experimentally investigate the pyrolysis behavior of the non metallic material of printed circuit boards (PCB) waste fraction at a temperature range of 300 ◦C to 600 ◦C by means of the Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and seek to find out the effective pyrolysis temperature that could be used in pyrolysis process in production scale. The experimental results reveal that the chemical composition of the PCB reflects that the main decomposition of PCBs occurs between 250 ◦C and 450 ◦C, and effectively decomposed at 403 ◦C. The pyrolysis of PCBs showed a varying production of aromatic compounds such as phenol, bromophenol, styrene, methylstyrene, and bisphenol A as well as non-aromatic compounds such as acetone and bromomethane, which are strongly related with the initial chemical composition of PCBs.
Bockhorn H, et al. Dehydrochlorination of plastic mixtures. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 1999; 49(1): 97-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-2370(98)00124-7
Chiang H-L, et al. Pyrolysis characteristics of integrated circuit boards at various particle sizes and temperatures. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2007; 149(1): 151-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.03.064
Duan H, et al. Examining the technology acceptance for dismantling of waste printed circuit boards in light of recycling and environmental concerns. Journal of Environmental Management 2011; 92(3): 392-399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.10.057
Blazsó M, Czégény Z, Csoma C. Pyrolysis and debromination of flame retarded polymers of electronic scrap studied by analytical pyrolysis. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 2002; 64(2): 249-261. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-2370(02)00035-9
Demirbaş A. Biomass resource facilities and biomass conversion processing for fuels and chemicals. Energy Conversion and Management 2001; 42(11): 1357-1378. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0196-8904(00)00137-0
Hamer G. Solid waste treatment and disposal: effects on public health and environmental safety. Biotechnology Advances 2003; 22(1): 71-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2003.08.007
Hujuri U, Ghoshal AK, Gumma S. Modeling pyrolysis kinetics of plastic mixtures. Polymer Degradation and Stability 2008; 93(10): 1832-1837. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2008.07.006
Ortuño N, et al. Thermogravimetric study of the decomposition of printed circuit boards from mobile phones. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2012.12.020
Jie G, Ying-Shun L, Mai-Xi L. Product characterization of waste printed circuit board by pyrolysis. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 2008; 83(2): 185-189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2008.08.007
Li J, et al. Printed circuit board recycling: a state-of-the-art survey. Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, IEEE Transactions on 2004; 27(1): 33-42. https://doi.org/10.1109/TEPM.2004.830501
Menad N, Guignot S, van Houwelingen J. New characterisation method of electrical and electronic equipment wastes (WEEE). Waste Management 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2012.04.007
Li J, et al. Characteristic of low-temperature pyrolysis of printed circuit boards subjected to various atmosphere. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 2010; 54(11): 810-815. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2009.12.011
Sohaili J, Muniyandi SK, Mohamad SS. A Review on Printed Circuit Boards Waste Recycling Technologies and Reuse of Recovered Nonmetallic Materials. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research 2012; 3(2): 1-7.
Smets K, et al. Water content of pyrolysis oil: Comparison between Karl Fischer titration, GC/MS-corrected azeotropic distillation and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 2011; 90(2): 100-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2010.10.010
Vasile C, et al. Feedstock recycling from plastics and thermosets fractions of used computers. II. Pyrolysis oil upgrading. Fuel 2007; 86(4): 477-485. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2006.08.010
Sun L, et al. Experimental research on pyrolysis characteristics of printed circuit board wastes. Journal of Chemical Industry and Engineering-China- 2003; 54(3): 408-412.
Zhang H-C, Ouyang X, Abadi A. An environmentally benign process model development for printed circuit board recycling. in Electronics and the Environment, 2006. Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE International Symposium on. 2006; IEEE.
Zhou Y, Wu W, Qiu K. Recovery of materials from waste printed circuit boards by vacuum pyrolysis and vacuum centrifugal separation. Waste Management 2010; 30(11): 2299-2304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2010.06.012
Sohaili J, Muniyandi SK, Mohamad SS. A review on printed circuit board recycling technology. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 2012; 3(1): 12-18.
Zhou Y, Wu W, Qiu K. Recycling of organic materials and solder from waste printed circuit boards by vacuum pyrolysiscentrifugation coupling technology. Waste Management 2011; 31(12): 2569-2576. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2011.07.002
Zhu P, et al. A new technology for separation and recovery of materials from waste printed circuit boards by dissolving bromine epoxy resins using ionic liquid. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.08.071
Riess M, et al. Identification of flame retardants in polymers using curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 2000; 53(2): 135-148. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-2370(99)00062-5
Strong AB. Fundamentals of composites manufacturing: materials, methods and applications 2008; SME.
Chen DYL, Wang H, He P. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review. Waste Management 2014; 34: 2466-2486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2014.08.004
Wang RXZ, Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): A review. Waste Management 2014; 34: 1455-1469. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2014.03.004
Luda MP, Balabanovich A, Zanetti M. Pyrolysis of fire retardant anhydride-cured epoxy resins. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 2010; 88(1): 39-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2010.02.008
Moltó J, et al. Pyrolysis and combustion of electronic wastes. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 2009; 84(1): 68-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2008.10.023
Yi-Hu KE-TY, Xin L, Chun-Ling L, Wen-Sheng D. Preparation of porous carbons from non-metallic fractions of waste printed circuit boards by chemical and physical activation. New Carbon Materials 2013; 28(2): 108-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1872-5805(13)60069-4
Sun Q-L, et al. Thermogravimetric-mass spectrometric study of the pyrolysis behavior of PVC. Journal of China University of Mining and Technology 2007; 17(2): 242-245. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1006-1266(07)60080-7
Jareemit SKP, Saeheng P, Pinyo W, Kwonpongsakoon S. The recycling of non-metallic fraction from printed circuit board waste as reinforcing material in artificial wall tile, in International Conference on Green and Sustainable Innovation 2012. Chiang Mai Thailand 2012.
Bunting BG, Boyd AC. An Evaluation of Pyrolysis Oil Properties and Chemistry As Related to Process and Upgrade Conditions with Special Consideration to Pipeline Shipment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center 2012.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 The Global Environmental Engineers
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
This article is published with Open-Access, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.