Sustainable Food Production in Greenhouses and Its Relations to the Environment
Keywords:Greenhouse environment, energy efficient comfort, ventilation, humidity, sustainable environmental impact
A greenhouse is essentially an enclosed structure, which traps the short wavelength solar radiation and stores the long wavelength thermal radiation to create a favourable microclimate for higher productivity. The sunâ€™s radiation incident on the greenhouse has two parts: direct radiation and an associated diffuse sky radiation. The diffuse part is not focused by the lenses and goes right through Frensel lenses onto the surface of the absorbers. This energy is absorbed and transformed into heat, which is then transported via the liquid medium in copper pipes to the water (heat) storage tanks or, if used, open fish tanks. In this way, an optimal temperature for both plant cultivation and fish production can be maintained. Stable plant growth conditions are light, temperature and air humidity. Light for the photosynthesis of plants comes from the diffuse radiation, which is without substantial fluctuations and variation throughout most of the day. The air temperature inside the greenhouse is one of the factors that have an influence on the precocity of production. The selective collector acts in a more perceptible way on extreme air temperatures inside the greenhouse. Hence, the system makes it possible to avoid the excessive deviation of the temperature inside the greenhouse and provides a favourable microclimate for the precocity of the culture. Sediment and some associated water from the sediment traps are used as organic fertiliser for the plant cultivation. The present trend in greenhouse cultivation is to extend the crop production season in order to maximise use of the equipment and increase annual productivity and profitability. However, in many Mediterranean greenhouses, such practices are limited because the improper cooling methods (mainly natural or forced ventilation) used do not provide the desired micro-climatic condition during the summer of a composite climate. Also, some of these greenhouses have been built where the meteorological conditions require some heating during the winter, particularly at night. The worst scenario is during the winter months when relatively large difference in temperature between day and night occurs. However, overheating of the greenhouse during the day is common, even in winter, requiring ventilation of the structure. Hence, several techniques have been proposed for the storage of the solar energy received by the greenhouse during the day and its use to heat the structure at night. Reviews of such techniques are presented in this paper. Air or water can be used for heat transport. The circulating water is heated during the day via two processes. The water absorbs part of the infrared radiation of the solar spectrum. Since the water is transparent in the visible region, they do not compete with the plants that need it. Alternatively, the water exchanges heat with the greenhouse air through the walls. At night, if the greenhouse temperature goes down below a specified value, the water begins to circulate acting as heat transfer surfaces heating the air in the greenhouse. This communication describes various designs of low energy greenhouses. It also, outlines the effect of dense urban building nature on energy consumption, and its contribution to climate change. The objectives are to produce vegetables in greenhouse environment. Measures, which would help to save energy in greenhouses, are also presented. It also enabled the minimisation of temperature variation and, hence avoided the hazard of any sudden climatic change inside the greenhouse.
Jeremy L. The energy crisis, global warming and the role of renewables. Renewable Energy World 2005; 8(2).
Omer A. Low energy building materials: an overview. In: Proceedings of the Environment 2010: Situation and Perspectives for the European Union. Porto: Portugal. 6-10 May 2003; p. 16-21.
UNEP. Handbook for the International Treaties for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. United Nations Environment Programme. Nairobi: Kenya 2003.
Viktor D. Ventilation concepts for sustainable buildings. In: Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress VII, p. 551, Cologne: Germany. 29 June – 5 July 2002.
Lam JC. Shading effects due to nearby buildings and energy implications. Energy Conservation and Management 2000; 47(7): 647-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0196-8904(99)00138-7
Raja J, Nichol F and McCartney K. Natural ventilated buildings use of controls for changing indoor climate. In: Proceedings of the 5th World Renewable Energy Congress. Florence: Italy. 20-25 September 1998; V. p. 391-394. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0960-1481(98)00193-1
Limb MJ. Air intake positioning to avoid contamination of ventilation. AIVC 1995.
Miller G. Resource conservation and management. Wadsworth Publishers. California: USA 1990; p.51-62.
Erlich P. Forward Facing up to Climate Change, in Global Climate Change and Life on Earth. RC Wyman (ed), Chapman and Hall, London 1991.
ASHRAE. Energy efficient design of new building except new low-rise residential buildings. BSRIASHRAE proposed standards 90-2P-1993, alternative GA. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers Inc, USA 1993.
Molla M. Air pollutants and its probable transmutation in the ionosphere. Renewable Energy 1997; 10(2/3): 327-329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0960-1481(96)00087-0
Bahadori M. A passive cooling/heating system for hot arid regions. In: Proceedings of the American Solar Energy Society Conference. Cambridge. Massachusetts 1988; 364-367.
Dieng A and Wang R. Literature review on solar absorption technologies for ice making and air conditioning purposes and recent development in solar technology. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review 2001; 5(4): 313-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1364-0321(01)00004-1
Lobo C. Defining a sustainable building. In: Proceedings of the 23rd National Passive Conference. American Solar Energy Society (ASES’98). Albuquerque: USA. 1998.
Crisp V, Cooper I and McKennan G. Daylighting as a passive solar energy option: an assessment of its potential in nondomestic buildings. Report BR129-BRE. Garston. UK 1988.
Horning M and Skeffington R. Critical loads: concept and applications. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology. HMSO Publishers Ltd. London: UK 1993; p. 23-27.
Humphrey’s M. Outdoor temperatures and comfort indoor. Building Research and Practice 1978; 6(2).
Givoni, B. (1998). Climate consideration in building and urban design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 1998.
Koenigsberger O, Ingersoll T, Mayhew A and Szokolay S. Manual of tropical housing and building. Part 1: Climate design. Longmas p.119-130. London: UK 1973.
Boulet T. Controlling air movement: a manual for architects and builders. McGraw-Hill, p.85-138, New York: USA 1987.
Szokolay S. Design and research issues: passive control in the tropic. Proceedings First World Renewable Energy Congress, p.2337-2344, Reading: UK 1990.
Borda-Daiz N, Mosconi P and Vazquez J. Passive cooling strategies for a building prototype design in a warm-humid tropical climate. Solar and Wind Technology 1989; 6: 389-400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0741-983X(89)90058-1
Givoni B. Laboratory study of the effect of window sizes and location on indoor air motion. Architectural Science Review 1965; 8: 42-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00038628.1965.9696139
Fanger P. Thermal comfort: analysis and applications in environmental engineering. Danish Technical Press 1970.
Fordham M. Natural ventilation. Renewable Energy 2000; 19: 17-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-1481(99)00012-9
Awbi H. Ventilation of buildings. Spon Publisher. London: UK 1991; p. 9-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203476307
Givoni B. Man climate and architecture. Applied Science Publisher Ltd. London: UK 1976; p.289-306.
BS 5454. Storage and exhibition archive documents. British Standard Institute. London 1989.
Lazzarin RD’Ascanio A and Gaspaella A. Utilisation of a green roof in reducing the cooling load of a new industrial building. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Sustainable Energy Technologies (SET), Porto: Portugal. 2002; p. 32-37.
David E. Sustainable energy: choices, problems and opportunities. The Royal Society of Chemistry 2003; 19: 19-47.
Zuatori A. An overview on the national strategy for improving the efficiency of energy use. Jordanian Energy Abstracts 2005; 9(1): 31-32.
Anne G and Michael S. Building and land management. 5th edition. Oxford: UK. 2005.
Randal G and Goyal R. Greenhouse technology. New Delhi: Narosa Publishing House 1998.
Yadav I and Chauadhari M. Progressive floriculture. Bangalore: The house of Sarpan 1997; p.1-5.
EIBI (Energy in Building and Industry). Constructive thoughts on efficiency, building regulations, inside committee limited. Inside Energy: magazine for energy professional. UK: KOPASS 1999; p.13-14.
Cheng R. Advanced biofuel technologies: status and barriers. World Bank Report WPS5411, 2010.
Cihan G, Dursun B, Bora A and Erkan S. Importance of biomass energy as alternative to other sources in Turkey. EnergyPolicy 2009; 37(2): 424-431. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2008.09.057
Kothari DP, Singal KC and Rakesh Ranjan. Renewable energy sources and emerging technologies, 2nd Edition, Private Ltd, New Delhi 2011.
Syifaul F, Mohammad P, Thobib N and Risfanda A. Application of photovoltaic cells as a power supply for smart greenhouse project, KnE Energy 2014; 2: 165-171.
Omer AM. Renewable energy technologies and sustainable development. International Journal of Current Research in Biological Sciences 2015; 1(6): 6-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-8433-1.ch008
How to Cite
This article is published with Open-Access, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.