Review on Coastal Erosion, Displacement and Resettlement Strategies of South Asian Countries


  • Prabal Barua Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Syed Hafizur Rahman Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Abhijit Mitra University of Calcutta, West Bengal, India
  • Sufia Zaman Techno India University, West Bengal, India



Disaster, Climate change, Coastal erosion, Displacement, Resettlement, South-Eastern coast of Bangladesh, Indian Sundarban


Coastal areas are subjected to unwelcome circumstances in the shape of sea-level rise and its adverse outcomes like storm surge, flooding and erosion with continuous climate change. In this manuscript, the authors presented the two case studies of erosion, displacement pattern and resettlement examples of climate displaced people of Bangladesh and India. Climate displaced people of Bangladesh and India have been an influx from coastal areas to a disaster-free safe area and also urban slum areas. In these circumstances, displaced people didn’t enjoy their cultural harmony, social status, family bondage in new living places. Resettled climate displaced people in the new habitat of Bangladesh and India are trying to adopting their new living conditions. Facilities of rehabilitation facilities have been evaluated to be insufficient and tiny for their sustenance in the long run. An appropriate development strategy is required by the Government so as to avoid the socio-economic backwardness of the resettlement areas of the South-Eastern coast of Bangladesh and Indian Sundarban inhabitants. The island inhabitants wait with great anxiety for help from the Government and Non-Government authorities to come frontward and support them to pull through their losses.

Author Biographies

Prabal Barua, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences

Syed Hafizur Rahman, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences

Abhijit Mitra, University of Calcutta, West Bengal, India

Department of Marine Sciences

Sufia Zaman, Techno India University, West Bengal, India

Department of Oceanography


Akter S. Social cohesion and willingness to pay for cyclone risk reduction: The case for the Coastal Embankment Improvement Project in Bangladesh. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 2020: 48 (2): 101-120.

Banerjee K, Abhijit M. Pulse of climate change in Indian Sundarbans: Impact on phytoplankton community. Environment, 2008; 10(3): 36-55.

Banerjee K, Gangopadhyay H, Avijit K, Abhijit M. Footprints of climate change in Sundarbans mangroves. Journal of Indian Ocean Studies, 2008; 16(1): 85-90.

Brattberg E, Sundelius B. Mobilizing for international disaster relief: comparing US and EU approaches to the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Journal of Homelogy Security and Emergency and Management, 2011; 8 (1): 24-40.

Barua P, Rahman SH, Easlamin S. Global Climate Change and Inequalities, W. Leal Filho et al. (eds.), Reduced Inequalities, Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals, Springer Switzerland, 2021; 13-26p.

Bandyopadhyay J, Mondal I, Samanta, N. Shore line shifting of Namkhana Island of Indian Sundarban, South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Using Remote Sens GIS Tech. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Research Technology, 2014; 3(5): 162-169.

Barua P, Rahman SH, Easlamin S. Rehabilitation and Relocation Program for Climate Displaced People of Bangladesh, W. Leal Filho et al. (eds.), W. Leal Filho et al. (eds.), Handbook of Climate Change Management, Springer Switzerland, 2021; 20-50p.

Biswas P, Chaudhuri R, Tanmay D, Pallavi R, Manju D, Zaman S, Mitra A. Footprints of Climate Change on Fish Community of Mangrove Dominated Lower Gangetic Delta. Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture Development, 2017; 5(1):1 - 3.

Barua P, Rahman SH, Morshed H. Sustainable adaptation for resolving climate displacement issues of south eastern islands in Bangladesh. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, 2017; 15(2): 440-465.

Barua P, Rahman SH. Community-based rehabilitation attempt for the solution of climate displacement crisis in the coastal area of Bangladesh, International Journal of Migration and Residential Mobility, 208; 1(4): 358-378.

Blythe J, Silver J, Evans L, Armitage D, Bennett NJ, Moore M., Morrison TH, Brown K. The dark side of transformation: Latent risks in contemporary sustainability discourse. Antipode, 50(5): 2018: 1206-1223.

Barua P, Rahman SH. Impact of river erosion on livelihood and coping strategies of displaced people in South-Eastern Bangladesh. International Journal of Migration and Residential Mobility, 2019; 2(1): 34-55.

Barua P, Rahman SH, Barua S, Ismail MMR. Climate Change Vulnerability and Responses of Fisherfolk Communities in the South-Eastern Coast of Bangladesh, Water Conservation and Management, 2020; 4(1): 20-31.

Chakraborty S. Delineation of morpho-structural changes of some selected islands in the Ganga delta region, West Bengal, India: a spatio-temporal change detection analysis using GIS and Remote sensing. International Journal of Science and Nature, 2013; 4(3): 499-507.

Chakma N. Inter Island Relocation due to Natural Hazards and Socio-Economic Challenges: A Case Study on Hugli Estuary Islands. Golden Research Thoughts, 2014; 4(2): 80-90.

Chowdhury RG, Abhijit M. Adaptation to Climate Change through Mangrove-Centric Livelihood. Journal of Marine Science: Research & Development, 2017; 7 (1): 45-75.

CRED. Disaster Year in Review 2019, Cred Crunch, 2020; 58(5): 20-25.

Capano G, Woo JJ. 2017. Resilience and Robustness in Policy Design: a Critical Appraisal, Policy Science, 2017; 20(3): 45-65.

Mortreux C, Ricardo SC, Adger WC, Ghosh T, Das S, Helen A, Hazra S. Political economy of planned relocation: A model of action and inaction in government responses. Global Environmental Change, 2018; 50 (2): 123-132.

Drolet J, Sampson T, Jebaraj DP, Richard L. Social work and environmentally induced displacement: A commentary. Refuge, 2013; 29(2): 55-62.

Dalezios NR, Eslamian S, Ostad-Ali-Askari K, Rabbani S, Saeidi-Rizi A. Sediments, In: Bobrowsky P., Marker B. (eds), Encyclopedia of Engineering Geology, Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series, Springer, 2018; 45p.

Dhiman R, Renjith V R, Eldho T, Arun I. Flood risk and adaptation in Indian coastal cities: recent scenarios. Applied Water Science, 2019; 9(3): 55-68.

Danda AA, Ghosh N, Bandyopadhyay J. Hazra S. Managed retreat: adaptation to climate change in the Sundarbans ecoregion in the Bengal Delta. Journal of the Indian Ocean Region, 2019; 3(3): 1-19.

Dilley M, Chen U, Deichmann R.S., Lerner-Lam A, Arnold M. (2005), Natural Disaster Hotspots: a Global Risk Analysis. Washington DC: World Bank Publications.

Fedele G, Donattia CI, Harveya CA, Hannah L, Holea DG. Transformative adaptation to climate change for sustainable social-ecological systems. Environmental Science and Policy, 2019; 101 (3): 116-125.

Ghosh T, Sengupta SK. Morphological Changes of Ghoramara Island, West Bengal: A Documentation. Indian Journal of Geography and Environment, 1997; 2(2): 64-65.

Ghosh T, Bhandari G, Hazra S. Application of a 'bio- engineering' technique to protect Ghoramara Island (Bay of Bengal) from severe erosion. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 2003; 9 (3): 171- 178.


Gopinath G, Seralathan P. Rapid erosion of the coast of Sagar island, West Bengal, India. Environmental Geology, 2005; 10(3): 45-70.

Ghosh T, Hajra R, Mukhopadhyay A. Island erosion and afflicted population: crisis and policies to handle climate change. In: Filho, W.L. (Ed.), International Perspectives on Climate Change. Springer, Germany, 2014; 80-90p.

Ghosh A, Mukhopadhyay S. Quantitative study on shoreline changes and Erosion Hazard assessment: case study in Muriganga-Saptamukhi interfluve, Sundarban, India. Modeling of Earth System and Environment, 2016; 2(1): 75-100.

Guha A. Environment Induced Resettlement and Profit-Sharing Model: A case study from Sundarban, West Bengal, India. Environmental Development, 2020; 20(3): 55-76.

Hazra S, Ghosh T, Das R. Sea level and associated changes in the Sundarbans. Science and Culture, 2002; 68(9-12): 309-321.

Hazra S, Bakshi A. Environmental Refugees from Vanishing Islands. In Bhattacharya P and Hazra S (Ed.), Environment and Human Security. Lancers' Books, India, 2003; 60-75p.

Hajra R, Ghosh T. Migration Pattern of Ghoramara Island of Indian Sundarban identification of Push and Pull Factors. International Journal of Asian Academic Research Associates, 2017; 39(3): 186-195.

Haque M. Community-based Adaptation to Climate Change: Experience of the Coastline of Bangladesh, Disaster, 2017; 45(5): 69-80.

Harms A. Adapting to sea level rise in the Indian Ocean: the cases of India and Bangladesh, Disaster Management, 2018; 75(3): 80-90.

Hossain B, Crispin M, Sohel MS. Climate Change Induced Human Displacement in Bangladesh: A Case Study of Flood in 2017 in Char in Gaibandha District. Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, 2020; 10(1): 47-60.

Islam AM, Hossain MS, Murshed S. Assessment of Coastal Vulnerability Due to Sea Level Change at Bhola Island, Bangladesh: Using Geospatial Techniques. Journal of Indian Society for Remote Sensing, 2015; 20 (4): 80-95.

Islam SN, Reinstädtler S, Gnauck A. Coastal environmental degradation and ecosystem management in the Ganges deltaic region in Bangladesh', International Journal of Ecological Economics, 2016; 37 (4): 59-81.

Islam MR, Shamsuddoha M. Socioeconomic consequences of climate induced human displacement and migration in Bangladesh. International Sociology, 2017; 32(3), 277-298.

Ishtiaque A, Nazem NI. Household-level disaster-induced losses and rural-urban migration: experience from world's one of the most disaster-affected countries. Natural Hazards, 2017; 86 (1): 315-326.

Ishtiaque A, Sangwan N, Yu D. Robust-yet-fragile nature of partly engineered social-ecological systems: a case study of coastal Bangladesh. Ecology and Society, 2017; 22(3): 50-68.

Islam MM, Rahman MS, Kabir MA, Islam MN, Chowdhury RM. Predictive assessment on landscape and coastal erosion of Bangladesh using geospatial techniques. Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment, 2019; 17 (2): 120-145.

Jana A, Sheena S, Biswas A. Morphological change study of Ghoramara Island, Eastern India using multi temporal satellite data. Research Journal of Recent Science, 2012; 1(10):72-81.

Jordan JC. Climate shocks and adaptation strategies in coastal Bangladesh: does microcredit have a part to play? Climate and Development, 2020; 6(4): 45-75.

Kothari U. Political discourses of climate change and migration: resettlement policies in the Maldives. Geographical Journal, 2014; 180(2): 130-140.

Komendantova N, Scolobig A, Garcia-Aristizabal A, Monfort D, Fleming, K. Multi-Risk Approach and Urban Resilience, International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 2016; 7(5): 90-102.

Löfgren, H. The communist party of India (Marxist) and the left government in West Bengal, 1977-2011: strains of governance and socialist imagination. Studies of Indian Politics, 2016; 4 (3): 102-115.

Mitra A, Zaman S, Kakoli B. Effects of Climate Change on marine and estuarine ecosystems with special reference to Gangetic delta. Journal of Indian Ocean Studies, 2009; 16(3): 194-201.

Mitra A, Banerjee K, Sengupta K, Avijit G. Gangopadhyay. Pulse of climate change in Indian Sundarbans: A myth or reality? National Academy of Science Letter, 2009; 32 (1 & 2): 19-25.

Mitra A, Zaman S, Chakraborty R, Halder P, Kakoli B. Abiotic indicators of climate change in Indian Sundarbans. Indian Science Cruiser, 2010; 23 (2): 53-56.

Mitra A, Kakoli B. Climate change in Indian Sundarbans: Impact on phytoplankton community. Indo-German Association Review, 2011; 2(1): 31 - 35.

Marino E. The long history of environmental migration: assessing vulnerability construction and obstacles to successful relocation in Shishmaref, Alaska. Global Environmental Change 2013; 22(5): 374-381.

Mitra A. Blue carbon: A hidden treasure in the climate change science. Journal of Marine Science Research & Development, 2013; 3(2): 80-95.

Mitra A, Pramanick P, Fazli P, Zaman S. Warming of lower gangetic delta water: an alarming trend. Journal of Environmental Science, 2014; 3 (3): 1101-1110.

Mahmuduzzaman M, Ahmed ZU, Nuruzzaman A, Ahmed FR. Causes of Salinity Intrusion in Coastal Belt of Bangladesh. International Journal of Plant Research, 2014; 4 (2): 8-13.

Mukherjee B. Coastal Erosion at Ghoramara and its Rehabilitation Programme in Jibantala. Indian Journal of Landscape Systems and Ecological Studies, 2014; 37(1): 159-172.

Mitra A, Saha A, Fernandes P, Pramanick P, Zaman S, Goutam S. Will non-conventional alternative livelihood scheme work in the framework of mangrove dominated Indian Sundarbans. Annals of Marine Science, 2019: 3 (1): 13 - 17.

Mizutori M. 2019, From Risk to Resilience: Pathways for sustainable development, Progress in Disaster Science, 2019; 2(1):150-60.

Santanu SK, Ghosh M, Arnab K, Dutta D, Moumita B. Shoreline shifting and its prediction using remote sensing and GIS techniques: a case study of Sagar Island, West Bengal, India. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 2016; 20 (3): 61-80.

O'Hagan AM, Ballinger RC. Implementing Integrated Coastal Zone Management in a national policy vacuum: Local case studies from Ireland. Ocean and Coastal Management, 2010; 53 (6): 750-759.

Rimi RH, Rahman SH, Karmakar S, Hossain G. Trend Analysis of Climate Change and Investigation on its probable Impacts on Rice Production at Satkhira, Bangladesh, Pakistan Journal of Meteorology, 2009; 6(3), 37-50.

Renaud F, Dun O, Warner K, Bogardi J. A decision framework for environmentally induced migration. International Migration, 2011; 49 (2): 35-55.

Rabbani G, Rahman A, Mainuddin K. Salinity-induced loss and damage to farming households in coastal Bangladesh. International Journal of Global Warming, 2014; 5(4): 400-413.

Roy C, Sen T. Coastal Erosion and Its Impact on Sagar Island, (S) 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. International Journal of Science and Research, 2013; 4(3): 438-450.

Rabbani G, Rahman SH, Lucy F. 2014. Impacts of Climatic Hazards on the Small Wetland Ecosystems (ponds): Evidence from Some Selected Areas of Coastal Bangladesh, Sustainability, 2014; 5(4): 1510-1521.

Raha AK, Zaman S, Sengupta K, Bhattacharyya SB, Raha S, Banerjee K, Mitra A. Climate change and sustainable livelihood programme: A case study from Indian Sundarbans. The Journal of Ecology, 2013; 17(5): 335 - 348.

Rahman SH, Ferdous F, Islam ST. Vulnerability and Impact Assessment to Climate Change and Ecosystem based Adaptation in a Drought prone area of Bangladesh applying DPSIR Framework. Jahangirnagar University Environmental Bulletin,2014; 3(2): 69-82.

Rahman SH, Islam SM, Rume T. Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Region of Bangladesh: Causes, Impacts and Adaptation, Journal of SUB, 2016; 6 (2): 44-63.

Rose L, Bhaskaran PK. Tidal propagation and its non-linear characteristics in the head Bay of Bengal. Estuaries, Coastal Shelf Science, 2017; 188 (2): 181-198.

Rahman MH, Rahman MS, Rahman MM. Disasters in Bangladesh: Mitigation And Management. Barisal University Journal, 2017; 4(1): 139-163.

Rahman MK, Thomas WS, Mandy JMS, Andrew C. Geospatial Analysis of Land Loss, Land Cover Change, and Landuse Patterns of Kutubdia Island, Bangladesh. International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research, 2018; 8(2): 50-65.

Rahman MS, Gain A. Adaptation to river bank erosion induced displacement in Koyra Upazila of Bangladesh. Progress in Disaster Science, 2020; 5(3): 55-70.

Rabbani GM, Rahman SH, Sirazoom M. Prospects of pond ecosystems as resource base towards community based adaptation (CBA) to climate change in coastal region of Bangladesh. Journal of Water and Climate Change, 2018; 9(1): 223-231.

Shamsuddoha M, Chowdhury RK. Climate Change Impact and Disaster induced Vulnerabilities in the Coastal areas of Bangladesh. Disaster Management, 2007; 20(5): 65-85.

Salauddin M, Ashikuzzaman M. Nature and extent of population displacement due to climate change triggered disasters in the south-western coastal region of Bangladesh. Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, 2018; 4 (2): 54-65.

Saravanan SN, Chandrasekar M, Rajamanickam C, Hentry K, Joevivek V. Climate Change and Coastal Erosion Pattern of West Bengal, India. International Journal of Ocean and Climate Systems, 2014; 5(4): 211-221.

Saha A, Nabonita N, Amin G, Zaman S, Mitra, A. Response of mangroves to climate change; A case study from the World Heritage Site of Indian Sundarbans. International Journal for Innovative Research in Multidisciplinary Field, 2017; 3 (9): 70 - 75.

Sangasumana RP. Post Disaster Relocation Issues: A Case Study of Samasarakanda Landslide in Sri Lanka. European Scientific Journal, 2018; 14(2): 45-65.

Salauddin M, Hossain KT, Tanim IA, Kabir MA, Saddam MH. Modeling spatio-temporal shoreline shifting of a coastal island in Bangladesh using geospatial techniques and DSAS extension. Annals of Valahia University of Targoviste. Geographical Series, 2018; 18 (1): 1-13.

Sadequr MR, Gain M. Adaptation to river bank erosion induced displacement in Koyra Upazilaof Bangladesh. Progress in Disaster Science, 2020; 5 (2): 55-75.

Taher TB, Rahman SH. Impact of Cyclone Sidr on Rural Livelihood using Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) Tools: A Case Study of a Coastal Unit in Bangladesh, Journal of Sustainability Science and Management, 2018; 13(1): 91-102.

Vivekanandan E, Hermes R, O'Brien C. Climate change effects in the Bay of bengal large marine ecosystem. Environmental Development, 2016; 17 (1): 46-56.

Wilmsen B, Webber M. What can we learn from the practice of development forced displacement and resettlement for organised resettlements in response to climate change? Geoforum, 2018; 58 (2): 76-85.

YPSA, DS. Climate Displacement in Bangladesh-The Housing, Land and Property Rights Initiatives, Young Power in Social Action and Displacement Solutions, Chittagong, Bangladesh, 2014: 36p.

Zaman M. The socioeconomic and political context of adjustment to riverbank erosion hazard and population resettlement in Bangladesh. Human Geography, 1997; 48 (3): 196-205.

Zaman S, Mitra A. Warning Bell of Climate Change in the Lower Gangetic Delta, Research & Reviews: Journal of Ecology, 2014; 3 (1): 41-45.




How to Cite

Barua P, Rahman SH, Mitra A, Zaman S. Review on Coastal Erosion, Displacement and Resettlement Strategies of South Asian Countries. Glob. Environ. Eng. [Internet]. 2020Dec.20 [cited 2021Sep.26];7(1):52-7. Available from: