In the Framework of Global Trade, Sustainability and Industry Demand for Innovative Process and Technologies, what kind of Modern “Green” Chemical Engineering is Required for the Design of “the Factory of the Future”?
Keywords:Green chemical and process engineering, Multiscale modeling, Sustainable product design and engineering, Novel process windows, Factory of the future, Modular plants, Additive manufacturing.
The chemical, petroleum, gas, energy and related industries are today confronted with the globalization of the markets, acceleration of partnerships and demand for innovative process and technologies for economic growth, and they are required to offer a contribution to the fight against environmental destruction and not always sustainable behavior of the today world production. This militates for the evolution of chemical engineering in favor of a modern green process engineering voluntarily concerned by sustainability that will face new challenges and stakes bearing on complex length and time multiscale systems at the molecular scale, at the product scale and at the process scale. Indeed, the existing and the future industry processes are progressively adapted to the principles of the « green (bio) chemistry ». This involves a modern approach of chemical engineering that satisfies both the market requirements for specific nano and microscale end-use properties of competitive targeted green (sustainable) products, and the social and environmental constraints of sustainable industrial meso and macroscale production processes at the scales of the units and sites of production. These multiscale constraints require an integrated system approach of complex multidisciplinary, non-linear, non equilibrium processes and transport phenomena occurring on the different time and length scales of the chemical supply chain. This means a good understanding of how phenomena at a smaller length-scale relates to properties and behavior at a longer length-scale, from the molecular and active aggregates-scales up to the production-scales (i.e. the design of a refinery from the Schrödinger’s equations...). It will be seen that the success of this integrated multiscale approach for process innovation (the 3rd paradigm of chemical engineering) is mainly due to the considerable developments in the analytical scientific techniques coupled with image processing, in the powerful computational tools and capabilities (clusters, supercomputers, cloud computers, graphic processing units, numerical codes parallelization etc.) and in the development and application of descriptive models of steady state and dynamic behavior of the objects at the scale of interest. This modern scientific multiscale approach of chemical engineering « the green approach of process engineering » that combines both market pull and technology push is strongly oriented on process intensification and on the couple green products/green processes “to produce much more and better in using much less”, i.e. to sustainabily produce molecules and products responding to environmental and economic challenges. It will be pointed out that process intensification due to innovative continuous flow process processes (novel process windows) and innovative technologies and new equipment construction technologies (additive manufacturing) will contribute to the design of the eco-efficient “factory of the future ”:i.e. a plant in a shoe box for polymer production or in a mobile banana container platform for small-scale production of specialty chemicals, or more generally modular plants leading to flexible chemical production by modularization and standardization in the pharmaceutical and specialty chemical industries and in a great number of other fields such as materials, petroleum and gas, water treatment and desalination and environmental management, among others.
JP. Mohamad, V. Sage, WJ. Lee, S. Periasamy, D. Deepa, et al., Tri-reforming of methane for the production of syngas: review on the process, catalysts and kinetic mechanisms, APCChE 2015 Congress - incorporating Chemeca 2015, Melbourne, Australia.
P. T. Anastas, N. Eghbali, Green Chemistry: Principles and Practice, Chem. Soc. Rev. 39 (2010) 301 https://doi.org/10.1039/B918763B
J.C. Charpentier, What kind of Modern "green" Chemical Engineering is required for the Design of the "Factory of Future"?, Procedia Engineering, 138 (2016) 445-458. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.02.104
R.J. Goncalves, D. Romero, A. Grilo, Factories of the Future: Challenging and Leading Innovations in Intelligent Manufacturing, International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing 30 (2017) 4-13.
Y. Yamauchi, S. Noda, H. Komiyama, Chemical Engineering for technology innovation, Chem. Eng. Comm. 196 (2009) 267-276.
T.F. Degnan Jr, Chemical engineering challenges in the refining and petrochemical industries – the decade ahead, Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, 9 (2015) 75-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coche.2015.09.003
N.M. Nikacevik, A.E.M. Huesman, P.M.J. Van den Hof, A. Stankiewicz, Opportunities and Challenges for process control in process intensification, Chemical Engineering and Processing 52 (2012) 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2011.11.006
P.T. Anastas, Fusing green chemistry and green engineering: DesignBuild at the molecular level, Green Chemistry 10 (2008) 607. https://doi.org/10.1039/b808091g
J.C. Charpentier, Perspective on multiscale methodology for product design and engineering, Computers and Chemical Engineering 33 (2009) 936-946. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compchemeng.2008.11.007
K.F. Jensen, Flow chemistry – Microreaction technology comes of age, AIChE Journal, 63 (2017) 858-869. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.15642
I.E. Grossmann, A.E. Westerberg, Research challenges in Process Systems Engineering, AIChE J. 46 (2000) 1700- 1703. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690460902
I.E. Grossmann, Challenges in the new millennium: Product discover and design, enterprise, and supply chain optimization, global life assessment, Computers and Chemical Engineering 29 (2004) 29-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compchemeng.2004.07.016
International Conference on Multiscale Approaches for Process Innovation (MAPI), 25 – 27 January 2012, Lyon (France), IFP Energies International Conference, Special issue OGST Journal 68 (2012) 951-1113.
J. Lerou, K.M. Ng, Chemical Reaction Engineering: A Multiscale Approach to a Multiobjective Task, Chem. Eng. Science 51 (1996) 1595-1614. https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2509(96)00022-X
J.C. Charpentier, The triplet "molecular process-productprocess" engineering: the future of chemical engineering? Chem. Eng. Science 57 (2002) 4667-4690 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2509(02)00287-7
K.U. Klatt, W. Marquardt, Perspectives for process systems engineering- Personal views from academia and industry, Computers and Chemical Engineering 33 (2009) 536-550. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compchemeng.2008.09.002
J.C. Charpentier, Among the trends for a modern chemical engineering, the third paradigm: The time and length multiscale approach as an efficient tool for process intensification and product design and engineering, Chemical Engineering Research and Design 88 (2010) 248-254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2009.03.008
J.C. Charpentier, C. Barrère-Tricca, Towards the 3rd paradigm of chemical engineering: The time and length Multiscale approaches as an efficient tool for sustainable process innovation, Oil & Gas Science and technology 68 (2013), 965-976.
A. Lucia, Multi-scale methods and complex processes: A survey and look ahead, Computers and Chemical Engineering 34 (2010) 1467-1475. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compchemeng.2009.10.004
K.M. Ng, J. Li, M. Kwauk, Process engineering research in China: a Multiscale market-driven approach, AIChE J. 51 (2005) 2620. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.10658
R. Scardovelli, S. Zaleski, Direct numerical simulation of freesurface and interfacial flow, Annu Rev. Fluid. Mech. 31 (1999) 567-603. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.fluid.31.1.567
C. Dan, A.Wachs, Direct Numerical Simulation of particulate flow with heat transfer, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 31 (2010) 1050-1057. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2010.07.007
A. Wachs, Rising 3D catalyst particles in natural convection dominated flow by a parallel DNS method, Computers and Chemical Engineering 35 (2011) 2169-2185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compchemeng.2011.02.013
A. Wachs, PeliGRIFF, a parallel DEM-DLM/FD direct numerical simulation tool for 3D particulate flows, J Eng Math., 71 (2011) 131-155. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10665-010-9436-2
U. Piomelli, Large-Eddy Simulation: Present
State and Future Perspective, AIAA (1998) Paper 98-0534.
M. Boivin, O. Simonin, K.D. Squires, On the prediction of gas-solid flow with two-way coupling using large eddy simulation, Phys. Fluids 12 (2000) 2080-2090. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.870453
N.G. Deen, M. van Sin Annaland, M.A. Van der Hoef, J. Kuipers, Review of discrete particle modeling of fluidized beds, Chem. Eng. Science, 62 (2007) 28-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2006.08.014
L. Raynal, A., Gomez, B. Caillat, Haroun Y.D., CO2 capture cost reduction: use of a multiscale simulations strategy for a multiscale issue, Oil & Gas Science and technology 68 (2013) 1093-1108. https://doi.org/10.2516/ogst/2012104
C.W. Hirt, B.D. Nichols, Volume of fluid (VOF) method for the dynamics of free boundaries, Journal of Computational Physics 39 (1981) 201-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9991(81)90145-5
Y.D. Haroun, D.L. Legendre, L. Raynal, Volume of fluid method for interactive mass transfer: Application to stable liquid film, Chem. Eng. Science 65 (2010) 2896-2909. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2010.01.012
Y.D. Haroun, L. Raynal, Prediction of effective area and liquid hold-up in structured packings by CFD, Chemical Engineering Research and Design 92 (2014) 2247-2254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2013.12.029
Y.D. Haroun, L. Raynal, Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for Absorption Packed Columns Design, Oil & Gas Science and technology 71 (2016) 43. https://doi.org/10.2516/ogst/2015027
J. Klosterman, K. Schaake, R. Schwarze, Numerical simulation of single rising bubble by VOF with surface compression, International Journal of Numerical Methods in Fluids 71 (2013) 960-982. https://doi.org/10.1002/fld.3692
H. Marschall, R. Mornhinweg, A. Kossmann, S. Oberhauser, K. Langbein, O. Hinrichsen, Numerical simulation of dispersed gas/liquid flows in bubble columns at high phase fractions using OpenFoam. Part II-Numerical simulations and results, Chemical Engineering & Technologies 34 (2011) 1321-1327. https://doi.org/10.1002/ceat.201100162
Y.D. Haroun, L. Raynal, P. Alix, Partitioned distributor tray for offshore gas/liquid contact column, Patent US 20130277868.
L. Raynal, F. Augier, F. Bazer-Bachi,Y.D. Haroun, C. Pereira da Fonte, CFD Applied to Process Development in the Oil and Gas Industry – A Review, Oil & Gas Science and technology 71 (2016) 42. https://doi.org/10.2516/ogst/2015019
G. Besagni, F. Inzoli, T. Ziegenhein, Two-Phase Bubble Columns: A comprehensive Review, ChemEngineering 2 (2018) 13 https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering2020013
D. Ramkrishna, M.R. Sing, Population Balance Modeling: Current Status and Prospects, Annu. Rev. Chem. Biomol. Eng. 5 (2014) 123-146. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060713-040241
M. Sen, R. Singh, A. Vanarase, J. John, R. Ramachandran, Multi-dimensional population balance modeling and experimental validation of continuous powder mixing processes, Chem. Eng. Science 80 (2012) 349-360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2012.06.024
H. Zhu, Z. Zhouand, R.Yang, A. Yu, Discrete particle simulation of particulate system: theoretical developments, Chem. Eng. Science, 62 (2007) 3378-3392. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2006.12.089
S.V. Muddu, A. Tamrakar, P. Pandey, R. Ramachandran, Model Development and Validation of Fluid Bed Wet Granulation with Dry Binder Addition Using a Population Balance Model Methodology, Processes, 6 (2018) 154. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6090154
M. Sen, D. Barrasso, R. Singh, R. Ramachandran, A multiscale hybrid cfd dem pbm description of a fluid-bed granulation process, Processes 2 (2014) 89-111. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr2010089
S. Succi, The Lattice Boltzmann equation for fluid dynamics and beyond, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2001
J.J.J. Gillissen, S. Sundaresan, H.E.A. Van den Akker, A lattice Boltzmann study on the drag force in bubble swarms J. Fluid Mech. 679 (2011) pp.101-121. https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2011.125
M.R. Kamali, S. Sundaresan, H.E.A. Van den Akker, J.J.J. Gillissen, A multi-component two-phase Lattice Boltzmann method applied to 1-D Fischer-Tropsch reactor, Chemical Engineering Journal 207 (2012) 587-595.
L. Chen, Q. Kang, Y. Mua, Y.-L. He, W.-Q. Tao, A critical review of the pseudopotential multiphase Lattice Boltzmann model: Methods and applications, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 76 (2014) 210-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2014.04.032
X. Franck, J.C. Charpentier, Y. Ma, N. Midoux, H.Z. Li, A Multiscale Approach for Modeling Bubbles Rising in Non- Newtonian Fluids, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 51 (2012) 2084-2093. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie2006577
A. Zarghami, S. Kenjeres, C. Haringa, H.E.A. Van den Akker, A comparative assessment of Lattice Boltzmann and Volume of Fluid (VOF) approaches for generic multiphase problems, ICMF-2016, 9th International Conference on Multiphase Flow, May 22nd -27th 2016, Firenze, Italy.
B. Buesser, A. Gröhn, Multiscale aspects of modeling gasphase nanoparticles synthesis Chem. Eng. Technol. 35 (2012) 1133-1143. https://doi.org/10.1002/ceat.201100723
P.Y. Prodhomme, P Raybaud, H. Toulhouat, Free-energy profiles along reduction pathways of MoS2 M-edge and Sedge by dihydrogen: A first-principles study, Journal of Catalysis 280 (2011)178-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcat.2011.03.017
P. Ungerer, B. Tavitian, A. Boutin, Applications of molecular simulations in the Oil and Gas industry, Technip, Paris (2005) 267.
G.A. Orozco, C. Nieto-Draghi, A. D. Mackie, V. Lachet, Equilibrium and Transport Properties of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Amines by Molecular Simulation, Oil & Gas Science and technology 69 (2014) 42, 833-849.
G.A. Orozco, C. Nieto-Draghi, A. D. Mackie, V. Lachet, Transferable force field for equilibrium and transport properties in linear and branched monofunctional and multifunctional amines. I. Primary amines, J. Phys. Chem. B115 (2011) 14617-14625. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp207601q
G.A. Orozco, C. Nieto-Draghi, A. D. Mackie, V. Lachet, Transferable force field for equilibrium and transport properties in linear and branched monofunctional and multifunctional amines. II. Secondary and tertiary amines, J. Phys. Chem. B116 (2012) 6193-6202. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp302972p
R. Gani, Computer-aided methods and tools for chemical product design, Chem. Eng. Res. Design 28 (2004) 2441
R. Morales-Rodriguez, R. Gani., Multiscale Modelling Framework for Chemical Product-Process Design, Computer-Aided Chemical Engineering 26 (2009) 495-500.
M. Mattei, G. Kontogeorges, R. Gani, A comprehensive framework for surfactant selection and design for emulsion based chemical product design, Fluid Phase Equilibrium 362 (2014) 288-299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2013.10.030
R. Gani, K.M. Ng, Product Design – Molecules, devices, functional products, and formulated products, Computer- Aided Chemical Engineering 81 (2015) 70-79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compchemeng.2015.04.013
K. Wintermantel, Process and product engineering – achievements, present and future challenges, Chem. Eng. Science 54 (1999) 1601-1620. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2509(98)00412-6
B.L. Braunschweig, C.C. Pantelides, H.I. Britt, S. Sama, Process modelling: The promise of open software architectures, Chemical Engineering Progress 96 (2000) 65- 76.
G. Schopfer, A. Yang, L. Wedel, W. Marquardt, CHEOPS: A tool-integration platform for chemical process modelling and simulation, International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer 6 (2004) 186-202. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10009-004-0157-6
M. Fermeglia, G. Longo, L. Toma, COWAR: A CAPE OPEN software module for the evaluation of process sustainability, Environmental Progress, 27 (2008) 373-382. https://doi.org/10.1002/ep.10262
M. Fermeglia, G. Longo, L. Toma, Computer aided design for sustainable industrial processes: Specific tools and applications, AIChE Journal 55 (2009) 1065-1078. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.11730
D.J. Garcia, F. You, Supply chain design and optimization: Challenges and opportunities, Computers and Chemical Engineering 81 (2015) 153-170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compchemeng.2015.03.015
X.D. Guo, L.J. Zhang, Y. Qian, Systematic Multiscale Method for Studying the Structure performance Relationship of Drug- Delivery Systems, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 51 (2012) 4719- 4730. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie2014668
Z.Jaworski, B Zakrzewska, Towards Multiscale modelling in product engineering, Computers and Chemical Engineering 35 (2011) 434-445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compchemeng.2010.05.009
W. Dzwinel, D.A. Yuen, K. Boryczko, Bridging diverse physical scales with the discrete-paradigm in modeling colloidal dynamics with mesoscopic features, Chem. Eng. Science 61 (2006) 2169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2004.01.075
M. Karimi, D. Marchisio, E. Laurini, M. Fermeglia, S. Pricl, Bridging the gapes across scales: coupling CFD and MD/GCMC in polyurethane foam simulation, Chem. Eng. Science 178 (2018) 39-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2017.12.030
R. Uglietti, M. Bracconi, M. Maestri, Coupling CFD-DEM and microkinetic modeling of surface chemistry for the simulation of catalytic fluidized system, Reaction Chemistry & Engineering 3 (2018) 527-539. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8RE00050F
M. Fermeglia, S. Pricl, Multiscale molecular modeling in nanostructured materials design and process system engineering, Computers and Chemical Engineering 33 (2009) 1701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compchemeng.2009.04.006
Y. Zhao, C. Jiang, A. Yang, Towards computer-aided multiscale modelling: An overarching methodology and support of conceptual modelling, Computers and Chemical Engineering 36 (2012) 10-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compchemeng.2011.06.010
W. Ge, W. Wang, N. Yang, J. Li, M. Kwauk, F. Chen, J. Chen, X. Fang et all (33 in all), Meso-scale oriented simulation towards virtual process engineering (VPE) – The EMMS Paradigm, Chem. Eng. Science 66 (2011) 4426-4458. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2011.05.029
W. Ge, L. Lu, S. Liu, J. Xu, F. Chen, J. Li, Multiscale Discrete Supercomputing – A Game Changer for Process Simulation, Chem. Eng. Technol. 38 (2015) 575-584. https://doi.org/10.1002/ceat.201400746
E. Conte, R. Morales-Rodriguez, R. Gani, The virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory as a Tool for Product Development, Computer Aided Chemical Engineering 26 (2009) 249-254. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1570-7946(09)70042-2
E. Conte, R. Gani, T.I. Malik, The virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory to manage the complexity in the verification of formulated products, Fluid Phase Equilibria 302 (2011) 294-304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2010.09.031
S. Kalakul, S. Cignitti, L. Zhang, R. Gani, -VPPD-lab: The Chemical Product Simulator, Computer Aided Chemical Engineering 39 (2017) 61-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63683-6.00003-4
S. Jonuzaj, P.T. Akula, P.M. Kleniati, C.S. Adjiman, The formulation of optimal mixtures with generalized disjunctive programming: A solvent design case study, AIChE Journal 62 (2016) 1616-1633. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.15122
H.A. Choudury, S. Intikhab, S. Kalakul, R. Gani, N.O. Elbashir, Integration of computational modelling and experimental techniques to design fuel surrogates, Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, ISSN 1875-5100, (2017).
S. Kalakul, M.R. Eden, R. Gani, The chemical Product Simulator – ProCAPD, Computer Aided Chemical Engineering 40 (2017) 979-984.. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63965-3.50165-3
S. Kalakul, L. Zhang, H.A. Choudury, N.O. Elbashir, M.R. Eden, R. Gani, ProCAPD – A Computer-Aided Mod-Based Tool for Chemical Product and Analysis, in Mario R. Eden, Marianthi Ierapetritou and Gavin P. Towler (Editors), Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Process System Engineering – PSE 2018, July 1-5 2018, San Diego, California, USA, 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
S. Kalakul, L. Zhang, Z. Fang, H.A. Choudury, S. Intikhab, N. Elbashir, M.R. Eden, R. Gani, Computer aided chemical product design – ProCAPD & tailor-made blended products, Computers and Chemical Engineering 116 (2018) 37-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compchemeng.2018.03.029
Z. Mao, C. Yang, Computational chemical engineering- Towards thorough understanding and precise application, Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering 24 (2016) 945- 951. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjche.2016.04.037
M.A. Waller, S.E. Fawcett, Data Science, predictive analytics, big data: a revolution that will transform supply chain design and management, J. Bus Logist 34 (2013) 77-84. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbl.12010
BT. Hazen, CA. Boone, JD. Ezell, LA. Jones-Farmer, Data quality for data science, predictive analytics, and big data in supply chain management: an introduction to the problem and suggestions for research applications, Int. J. Prod. Econ. 154 (2014) 72-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2014.04.018
J.C. Charpentier, In the frame of globalization and sustainability, process intensification, a path to the future of chemical and process engineering (molecules into money), Chem. Eng. Journal 134 (2007) 84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2007.03.084
T. Van Gerven, A.I. Stankiewicz, Structure, energy, synergy, time - the fundamentals of process intensification, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 48 (2009) 246- 2474.
J.B. Powell, Application of multiphase reaction engineering and process intensification to the challenges of sustainable future energy and chemicals, Chem. Eng. Science 157 (2017) 15-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2016.09.007
Q. Li, K.H. Luo, Q.J. Kang, Y.L. He, Q. Chen, Q. Liu, Lattice Boltzmann methods for multiphase flow and phase-change heat transfer (Review), Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 52 (2016) 62-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2015.10.001
X. Li, J. Fan, H. Yu, Y. Zhu, H. Wu, Lattice Boltzmann methods simulations shale gas flow in contracting nanochannels, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 122 (2018) 1210-1221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.02.066
F.J. Keil, Process intensification, Rev Chem Eng 34 (2018) 135-200. https://doi.org/10.1515/revce-2017-0085
A Stankiewicz, J. Moulijn, Process intensification: transforming chemical engineering, Chem. Eng. Progress 1 (2000) 22-34.
A. Gorak, A. Stankiewicz, Intensification and separation systems, Annu. Rev. Chem. Biomol. Eng. 2 (2011) 431-451. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-061010-114159
Ö Yildirim, A.A. Kiss, E. Y. Kenig, Dividing wall column in chemical process industry: a review on current activities, Sep. Purif. Technol. 80 (2011) 403-417. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2011.05.009
Z. Anxionnaz, M. Cabassud, C. Gourdon, P. Tochon, Heat exchangers/reactors (hex reactors): concept, technologies: State-of-the-art, Chem. Process. Process Intens. 47 (2008) 2029-2050. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2008.06.012
V. Hessel, I.V. Gürsel, Q. Wang, T. Noël, J. Lang J, Potential Analysis of Smart Flow Processing and Microprocess Technology for Fastening Process Development: Use of Chemistry and Process Design as Intensified Fields, Chem. Eng. Technol. 35 (2012) 1185-1204.
M. Kashid, A. Gupta, A. Renken, L. Kiwi-Minsker, Numbering-up and mass transfer studies of liquid-liquid twophase microstructured reactors, Chem. Eng. J. 158 (2010) 233-240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2010.01.020
M. Al-Rawashdeh, F. Yu, T.A. Nijhuis, E.V. Rebrov, V. Hessel, J.C. Schouten, Numbered-up gas-liquid micro/milli channels reactor with modular flow distributor, Chem. Eng. J. 207-208 (2012) 645-655. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.07.028
N. Kockmann, M. Gottsponer, D.M. Roberge, Scale-up concept of single-channel microreactors from process development to industrial production, Chem. Eng. J. 167 (2011) 718-726. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2010.08.089
J. Zhang, K. Wang, A.R. Teixeira, K.F. Jensen, G. Luo, Design and Scaling Up of Microchemical Systems: A Review, Annu. Rev. Chem. Biomol. Eng. 8 (2017) 13.1-13.21. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060816-101254
I. Rossetti, M. Compagnoni, Chemical reaction engineering, process design and scale-up issues at the frontier of synthesis: Flow chemistry, Chem. Eng. J. 206 (2016) 56-70.
Y. Jun-Ichi, K. Heejin, N. Aiichiro, "Impossible" chemistries based on flow and micro, Journal of Flow Chemistry 7 (2017) Issue 3-4 doi.orga/10.1556/1846.2017.00017.
J.J. Lerou, A.I Tonkovich, L. Silva, S. Perry, J. MacDaniel, Microchannel reactor architecture enable greener processes, Chem. Eng. Science 65 (2010) 380-385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2009.07.020
J.C. Charpentier, Intensification de procédés,-Introduction, Techniques de l'Ingénieur, J7000 (2016) 1-6.
K.S. Elvira, X. Cl. Solvas, R.C.R. Wootton, A.J. DeMello, The past, present and potential for microfluidic reactor technology in chemical synthesis, Nat. Chem. 5 (2013) 905-915. https://doi.org/10.1038/nchem.1753
V. Hessel, B. Cortese, M.H.J.M. de Croon, Novel process windows- Concept, proposition and evaluation methodology, and intensified superheating processing", Chemical Engineering Science 66 (2011) 1426-1448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2010.08.018
V. Hessel, D. Kralish, N. Kochman, T. Noel, Q. Wang, Novel process windows for enabling, accelerating and uplifting flow chemistry, ChemSusChem 6 (2013) 746-789. https://doi.org/10.1002/cssc.201200766
V. Hessel, D. Kralish, N. Kochman, Novel Process Windows: Innovative Gates to Intensified and Sustainable Chemical Processes, Wiley VCH, 2015.
J. Lang, F. Stenger, H. Richert, Small is beautiful, Evonik Elements 37 (2011) 12-17.
T. Bieringer, S. Bucholtz, N. Kockmann, Future Production Concepts in the Chemical Industry: Modular – Small-Scale – Continuous, Chem. Eng. Technol. 36 (2013) 900-910. https://doi.org/10.1002/ceat.201200631
Y. Kim, L.K. Park, S. Yiacoumi, C. Tsouris, Modular Chemical Process Intensification: A Review, Annu. Rev. Chem. Biomol. Eng. 8 (2017) 359-380. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060816-101354
M. Baldea, T.F. Edgar, B.L. Stanley, A.A. Kiss, Modular Manufacturing Processes: Status, Challenges and Opportunities, AIChE Journal 63 (2017) 4262-4272. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.15872
M. Baldea, T.F. Edgar, B.L. Stanley, A.A. Kiss, Modularization in Chemical Processing, CEP, March 2018, 2- 10, wwwaiche.org/cep
F3 (Flexible, Fast, and Future) Factory. 2013; www.f3factory.com/scripts/pages/en/home.php
D. Schmalz, F. Stenger, A. Brodhagen, A. Schweiger, T; Bieringer, C. Dreiser, Towards modularization and standardization of chemical production units: statu quo, development needs, and current activities, Dechema Praxisforum Future Production Concepts in Chemical Industry, April 27-28th 2016, Frankfurt.
AIChE. 2016. U.S. Department of Energy taps AIChE to lead Rapid Advancement in Process Intensification (RAPID) Modular Process Intensification Institute. News Release, Dec. 9. http//www.aiche.orga/about/press/releases/12-20- 2016/us-department-energy-taps-aiche-lead-rapid-modularprocess- intensification-institute
I. Rosetti, Continuous flow (micro)reactors for heterogeneous catalyzed reactions: Main design and modelling issues, Catalysis Today 308 (2018) 20-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2017.09.040
A.I. Shallan, P. Smejkal, M. Corban, R.M. Guijt, M.C. Breamore, Cost-effective three-dimensional printing of visible transparent microchips within minutes, Anal. Chem. 86 (2014) 3124-3130. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac4041857
A.J. Capel, S. Edmonson, S.D.R. Christies, R.D. Goodrige, R.J. Bibb, M. Thurstans, Design and additive manufacture for flow chemistry, Lab Chip 13 (2013) 4583-4590. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3lc50844g
M.D. Symes, P.J. Kitson, J. Yan, C.J. Richmond, G.J. Cooper, et al., Integrated 3D-printed reactionware for chemical synthesis and analysis. Nat. Chem. 4 (2012) 349- 354.
R. Faure, M. Flin, P. del Gallo, M. Wagner, Add It Up, The Chemical Engineer, October 2018, www://thechemicalengineer.com/features/add-it-up/
V. Santos-Moreau, J.M. Newsam, J.C. Charpentier, Towards the laboratory of the future for the factory of the future, Oil & Gas Science and technology 70 (2015), 395-403. https://doi.org/10.2516/ogst/2015006
C. Parra-Cabrera, C. Achille, S. Khun, R. Ameloot, 3D printing in chemical engineering and catalytic technology: Structures catalysts, mixers and reactors, Chem. Soc. Rev. 47 (2018) 209-230.
J.A. Arrieta-Escobar, F.P. Bernardo, A. Orjuela, M. Camargo, L. Morel, Incorporation of Heuristic Knowledge in the Optimal Design of Formulated Products: Application to a Cosmetic Emulsion, Computers & Chemical Engineering (2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compchemeng.2018.08.032.