AbstractFloods are generally seen as natural occurrences with other underlying causal factors. These factors are both natural and anthropogenic in nature and often induce or exacerbate flood episodes in the environment. As it were, while some of these factors stem from natural ecological cycles, others are engendered by accumulated anthropogenic actions or inactions. This study aims to examine three independent documents comprising of two technical reports commissioned by the Bayelsa State government in Yenagoa and contiguous neighborhoods and narratives from a PhD flood research with a view to understanding the nature and dynamics of anthropogenic actions causing flooding in Bayelsa State. The objectives include; a systematic review of the government commissioned technical reports on floods in Yenagoa and other related documents; identify and highlight both natural and anthropogenic causes of flooding in the study area; recommend an appropriate course of action. The study adopted direct personal observation, photography and secondary data analysis to obtain data. Findings from the combination of these documents highlight some of the deliberate human actions and/or inactions taken by both Government and private developers regarding incidents of flooding within the Yenagoa Metropolis. Based on the document’s review, three key anthropogenic actions were identified; building construction and other physical development activities, waste management and drainage systems and public infrastructure development. Specific recommendations such as the adoption of a holistic approach towards harmonized flood data management framework, effective implementation of such policies to tackle these identified challenges, undertake EIA, hydrologic and hydrographic studies, as well as base line studies before embarking on any developmental projects, desilting of clogged drainage culverts and proper alignment of road projects to reduce incursion and subsequent impediment of free flow of runoffs were made.
Simonović SP. Floods in a changing climate: risk management. Cambridge University Press. 2012. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139088404
Adelekan IO. Vulnerability of poor urban coastal communities to flooding in Lagos, Nigeria. Environment and Urbanization, 2010; 22(2): pp. 433-450. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956247810380141
Douglas I, Alam K, Maghenda M, et al. Unjust Waters: Climate Change, Flooding and the Urban Poor in Africa. Environment and Urbanization 2009; 20(1): 187-205. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956247808089156
Hirabayashi Y, Mahendran R, Koirala S, et al. "Global flood risk under climate change", Nature Climate Change, 2013; 3(9): pp. 816. https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1911
Zheng Z, Qi S. Potential Flood Hazard Due to Urban Expansion in the Karst Mountainous Region of North China. Regional Environmental Change 2011; 11(3): 439-450. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-011-0242-9
McGarigal K. FRAGSTATS help. Documentation for FRAGSTATS, 2014; vol. 4.
Vormoor K, Lawrence D, Heistermann M, Bronstert A. Climate change impacts on the seasonality and generation processes of floods in catchments with mixed snowmelt/ rainfall regimes: projections and uncertainties. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 2014; 11(6): pp. 6273- 6309. https://doi.org/10.5194/hessd-11-6273-2014
Kabanda TH, Palamuleni L. Land use/cover changes and vulnerability to flooding in the Harts catchment, South Africa. South African Geographical J. 2013; 95(1): pp. 105-116. https://doi.org/10.1080/03736245.2013.806165
Veijalainen N, Lotsari E, Alho P, Vehviläinen B, Käyhkö J. National scale assessment of climate change impacts on flooding in Finland. Journal of Hydrology, 2010; 391(3-4): pp. 333-350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.07.035
Pilla F, Gharbia SS, Lyons R. How do households perceive flood-risk? The impact of flooding on the cost of accommodation in Dublin, Ireland. Science of the Total Environment, 2019; 650: pp. 144-154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.439
Yin H, Li C. Human Impact on Floods and Flood Disasters on the Yangtze River. Geomorphology 2001; 41(2): pp. 105-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-555X(01)00108-8
Posthumus H, Hewett C, Morris J, Quinn P. Agricultural land use and flood risk management: engaging with stakeholders in North Yorkshire. Agricultural Water Management, 2008; 95(7): pp. 787-798. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2008.02.001
Agbola BS, Ajayi O, Taiwo OJ, Wahab BW. The August 2011 flood in Ibadan, Nigeria: Anthropogenic Causes and Consequences. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 2012; 3(4): 207-217. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13753-012-0021-3
Uyigue E, Agho M. Coping with climate change and environmental degradation in the Niger Delta of southern Nigeria. Community Research and Development Centre Nigeria (CREDC), 2007; pp. 24-27.
Ochege FU, Wekpe VO, Obafemi AA. An Overview of Flood Vulnerability Mapping: strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Hydrological Sciences, 2016; 4(1): pp. 13-26.
Mmom PC, Aifesehi PE. Vulnerability and resilience of niger delta coastal communities to flooding. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2013; 10: pp. 27-33. https://doi.org/10.9790/0837-1062733
Bayelsa State Infrastructure Advisory Committee (BSIAC) and Post Flood Management Committeee (PFMC). Flood Control Measures in Bayelsa State, Office of the Permanent Secretary, Bayelsa State Ministry of Works and Infrastructure. 2013.
Agarwal A, Chak A, (eds). State of India’s Environment 3. Floods, Flood Plains and Environmental Myths. Centre for Science and Environment, Excellent Printing House, New Delhi, India. 1991.
Blaikie PM, Muldavin JSS. Upstream, downstream, China, India: the politics of environment in the Himalayan region. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 2004; 94: 520-548. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.2004.00412.x
Bruijnzeel LA. Hydrological functions of tropical forests: not seeing the soil for the trees? Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 2004; 104: 185-228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2004.01.015
Bruijnzeel LA. Hydrology of Moist Tropical Forest and Effects of Conversion: A State of Knowledge Review. UNESCO/Vrije Universiteit, Paris/Amsterdam, the Netherlands. 1990.
FAO, CIFOR. Forests and Floods: Drowning in Fiction orThriving on Facts? Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Center for International Forestry Research, Bangkok, Thailand. 2005.
Calder IR, Aylward B. Forests and floods: moving to an evidence-based approach to watershed and integrated flood management. Water International, 2006; 31: 87-99. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508060608691918
Bradshaw CJA, Sodhi NS, Peh KS, Brook BW. Global evidence that deforestation amplifies flood risk and severity in the developing world, Global Change Biology 2007; 13: 2379-2395. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01446.x
Clark C. Deforestation and floods. Environmental Conservation, 1987; 14: 67-69. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892900011127 Brown I. An Analysis of Power Relations in Flood Disaster Resilience in Rivers State, Nigeria. Unpublished PhD Thesis, School of Natural and Built Environment, Queen’s University Belfast. 2019.