Commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software have been applied in indoor environmental design in recent years, but the prediction accuracy depends on an understanding of fluid dynamics fundamentals, in setting appropriate boundary and numerical conditions. This study aims to provide practical modelling information related to prediction accuracy and problematic areas in CFD applications in air conditioning and ventilation, through a series of benchmark tests and reported the results. Six commercial CFD codes were evaluated while two benchmark test cases were performed on isothermal/non-isothermal flow in 2D and 3D room models. The influence of mesh design, and turbulence models showed that using a standard k-ε model on a coarse mesh could provide sufficiently accurate results for practical purposes, by reducing the relaxation coefficient. Evaluation using different CFD programs on a non-isothermal room airflow showed different performances in predicting temperature distributions. The OpenFOAM code showed the closest matching results between three codes tests.
Chang TJ, Hsieh YF, Kao HM. Numerical investigation of airflow pattern and particulate matter transport in naturally ventilated multi-room buildings. Indoor Air 16. 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0668.2005.00410.x
Li X, Inthavong K, Ge Q, Tu J. Numerical investigation of particle transport and inhalation using standing thermal manikins. Building Environ. 2013; 60: 116-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.11.014
Li X, Inthavong K, Tu J. Numerical investigation of micron particle inhalation by standing thermal manikins in horizontal airflows. Indoor and Built Environment: 2014; 1420326X14551069.
Nielson PV. Flow in air conditioned rooms, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark. 1974.
Luo S, Heikkinen J, Roux B. Simulation of air flow in the IEA Annex 20 test room—validation of a simplified model for the nozzle diffuser in isothermal test cases. Building Environ. 2004; 39:1403-1415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2004.04.006
Zhai Z. Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics in Building Design: Aspects and Trends. Indoor Built Environ. 2006; 15: 305-313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1420326X06067336
Nielsen PV, Awbi HB, Davidson L, Schalin A. Computational Fluid Dynamics in Ventilation Design, REHVA Guidebook No. 10. Federation of Europian Heating and Air-conditioning Associations, REHVA, ISBN. 2007; 2-9600468-9-7.
Chen Q. Computational fluid dynamics for HVAC - successes and failures. ASHRAE Transactions, 1997; 103: 178-187.
AIAA. Guide for the verification and validation of computational fluid dynamics simulations, in AIAA G-077- 1998, Reston, VA.
Stern F, Wilson R, Shao J. Quantitative V&V of CFD simulations and certification of CFD codes. Int J Numer Meth Fluids, 2006; 50:1335-1355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fld.1090
Sorensen DN, Nielsen PV. Quality control of computational fluid dynamics in indoor environments. Indoor Air, 2003; 13: 2-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0668.2003.00170.x
Chung KC. Three-dimensional analysis of airflow and contaminant particle transport in a partitioned enclosure. Building Environ. 1999; 34: 7-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0360-1323(97)00073-5
Abanto J, Barrero D, Reggio M, Ozell BT. Airflow modelling in a computer room. Building Environ. 2004; 39: 1393-1402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2004.03.011
Cheong KWD, Djunaedy E, Poh TK, Tham KW, Sekhar SC, Wong NH, et al. Measurements and computations of contaminant's distribution in an office environment. Building Environ 2003; 38: 135-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0360-1323(02)00031-8
Ge Q, Li X, Inthavong K, Tu J. Numerical study of the effects of human body heat on particle transport and inhalation in indoor environment. Building Environ 2013; 59: 1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.08.002
Inthavong K, Ge QJ, Li A, Tu JY. Source and trajectories of inhaled particles from a surrounding environment and its deposition in the respiratory airway. Inhalation Toxicol 2013; 25: 280-291. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08958378.2013.781250
King Se CM, Inthavong K, Tu J. Inhalability of micron particles through the nose and mouth. Inhalation Toxicol 2010; 22: 287-300. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08958370903295204
Chen Q. Comparison of different k-models for indoor airflow computations. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part B: Fundamentals 1995; 28: 353-369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10407799508928838
Rouaud O, Havet M. Computation of the airflow in a pilot scale clean room using K-turbulence models. Int J Refrigeration 2002; 25: 351-361. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-7007(01)00014-7
Gebremedhin KG, Wu BX. Characterization of flow field in a ventilated space and simulation of heat exchange between cows and their environment. J Thermal Biol 2003; 28: 301- 319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4565(03)00007-X
Nielsen PV. Specification of a Two-Dimensional Test Case, Aalborg University, IEA Annex 20: Air Flow Patterns within Buildings 1990.
Sørensen DN, Nielsen PV. Quality control of computational fluid dynamics in indoor environments. Indoor Air 2003; 13: 2-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0668.2003.00170.x
Voigt LK. Validation of Turbulence Models using Topological Aspects, in ROOMVENT 2002; 173-176.
Demuren AO, Rodi W. Calculation of turbulence-driven secondary motion in non-circular ducts. J Fluid Mech 1984; 140: 189-222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022112084000574
Heschl C, Inthavong K, Sanz W, Tu J. Evaluation and improvements of RANS turbulence models for linear diffuser flows. Comput Fluids 2013; 71: 272-282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compfluid.2012.10.015
van Hooff T, Blocken B, van Heijst GJF. On the suitability of steady RANS CFD for forced mixing ventilation at transitional slot Reynolds numbers. Indoor Air 2012; n/a-n/a.
Heschl C, Inthavong K, Sanz W, Tu J. Nonlinear eddy viscosity modeling and experimental study of jet spreading rates. Indoor Air 2014; 24: 93-102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ina.12050
Nielsen PV. The selection of turbulence models for prediction of room airflow. ASHRAE Transactions 1998; 104: 1119-1127.
Zhang Z, Zhang W, Zhai Z, Chen Q. Evaluation of various turbulence models in predicting airflow and turbulence in enclosed environments by CFD: part-2: Comparison with experimental data from literature. HVAC&R Res 2007; 13: 871-886. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10789669.2007.10391460
Ito K, Kato S, Murakami S. Model experiment of flow and temperature field in room for validating numerical simulation analysis of newly proposed ventilation effectiveness. J Architect Planning Environ Eng 2000; 534: 49-56.
Lemaire AD, Chen Q, Ewert M, Heikkinen J, Inard C, Moser A, et al. Room air and contaminant flow, evaluation of computational methods. Subtask-1 Summary Report, in International Energy Agency, Annex 20, TNO Building and Construction Research, Delft 1993. The Netherlands.
Chen Q, Glicksman LR. Application of computational fluid dynamics for indoor air quality studies,. McGraw-Hill, Inc. 2000.
Launder BE, Spalding DB. The numerical computation of turbulent flows. Comput Meth Appl Mech Eng 1974; 3: 269-289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0045-7825(74)90029-2
Abe K, Kondoh T, Nagano Y. A new turbulence model for predicting fluid flow and heat transfer in separating and reattaching flows—II. Thermal field calculations. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 1995; 38: 1467-1481. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0017-9310(94)00252-Q
Yakhot V, Orszag SA. Renormalization group analysis of turbulence. I. Basic theory. J Sci Comput 1986; 1: 3-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01061452
Wilcox D. Turbulence Modeling for CFD. DCW Industries, Inc., 5354 Palm Drive, La Canada, California 91011. 1993.
Menter FR, Kuntz M, Langtry RB. Ten Years of Industrial Experience with the SST Turbulence Model, in Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer 4, K. Hanjalic, Y. Nagano, M. Tummers, eds, Begell House Inc 2003; 625-632.
Murakami S, Kato S, Nakagawa H. Numerical and experimental study for flow and temperature fields in rooms with horisontal nonisothermal jets. J Architect Planning, Environ Eng 1991; 423: 11-21.
Kato S, Murakami S, Kondo T. Numerical study of nonisothermal three-dimensional room airflow: Room airflow analysis by means of algebraic stress model Part 4. J Architect Planning, Environ Eng 1993; 443: 15-20.
Ooka R, Murakami S, Kato S. Numerical Simulation of Room Airflow by Means of Differential Stress Model part 2: 3-D Simulation for Buoyant Flow comparing with ASM results. Summaries of Technical Papers of Committee Meeting Architectural Institute of Japan 1992; 519-520.
Mizutani K, Murakami S, Mochida A, Tominaga T. Large Eddy Simulation of Non-Isothermal Room Airflow. Summaries of Technical Papers of Committee Meeting Architectural Institute of Japan 1992; 625-628.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2015 International Journal of Architectural Engineering Technology