Methods of Determining Retardation Coefficients of Organic Compounds in Aquifers


Batch method, Column method, Retardation factor, Sorption, Organic compounds, Sorption equilibrium coefficient, Groundwater contamination.

How to Cite

Munjed A. Maraqa. Methods of Determining Retardation Coefficients of Organic Compounds in Aquifers. Glob. J. Earth Sci. Eng. [Internet]. 2018Dec.31 [cited 2022Jan.16];5(1):54-67. Available from:


 Sorption is an important mechanism that affects the mobility of organic compounds in the subsurface environment. Sorbed compounds move slower than that of groundwater, causing retardation in their movement. Accurate determination of retardation coefficients (R) of organic compounds in aquifers is critical for understanding their movement, fate, and remediation. Several methods, including predictive tools, laboratory experiments, and field experiments have been utilized for determining sorption-related retardation. The objective of this paper was to review and compare between the different methods used for the determination of R of organic compounds, with emphasis on predictive- and laboratory-based approaches. Predictive tools are based on the use of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). Laboratory methods utilize different types of reactors including batch, stirred-flow, circulation-through-column, or miscible displacement through packed columns. In addition, data from the column method have been analyzed in various ways to determine R. Discrepancies between results from different methods or from different analysis approaches have been reported. This create uncertainty about the suitability of some of these methods or the used analysis approaches. This paper highlights the possible causes for the observed discrepancy and establishes the limitations and appropriateness of the used methods and analysis approaches.


Davison A, Howard G, Melita Stevens, Callan P, Fewtrell L, Deere D, et al. Water safety plans: Managing drinking-water quality from catchment to consumer. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005.

Rahman MF, Yanful EK, Jasim SY. Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment: implications for the drinking water industry and global environmental health. J Water Health Lond 2009; 7: 224-43.

Stuart M, Lapworth D, Crane E, Hart A. Review of risk from potential emerging contaminants in UK groundwater. Sci Total Environ 2012; 416: 1-21.

Eckhardt DAV, Pearsall KA. Chlorinated organic compounds in ground water at Roosevelt Field, Nassau County, Long Island, New York. 1989.

Persson Y. Chlorinated organic pollutants in soil and groundwater at chlorophenol-contaminated sawmill sites. Ph.D. Dissertation, Umea University, Umea, Finland, 2007.

Mitra S, Roy P. BTEX : A serious ground-water contaminant. Res J Environ Sci 2011; 5: 394-8.

Gross SA, Avens HJ, Banducci AM, Sahmel J, Panko JM, Tvermoes BE. Analysis of BTEX groundwater concentrations from surface spills associated with hydraulic fracturing operations. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2013; 63: 424-32.

Ugochukwu UC, Ochonogor A. Groundwater contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon due to diesel spill from a telecom base station in a Nigerian City: assessment of human health risk exposure. Environ Monit Assess 2018; 190: 249.

Rodenburg LA, Du S, Fennell DE, Cavallo GJ. Evidence for widespread dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in groundwater, landfills, and wastewater collection systems. Environ Sci Technol 2010; 44: 7534-40.

USGS. Pesticides in the Nation’s Streams and Ground Water, 1992-2001—A Summary. Fact Sheet 2006-3028 2006. https: //

Barnes KK, Kolpin DW, Furlong ET, Zaugg SD, Meyer MT, Barber LB. A national reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States--I) groundwater. Sci Total Environ 2008; 402: 192- 200.

Lapworth DJ, Baran N, Stuart ME, Ward RS. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater: A review of sources, fate and occurrence. Environ Pollut 2012; 163: 287-303.

Silva CP, Otero M, Esteves V. Processes for the elimination of estrogenic steroid hormones from water: A review. Environ Pollut 2012; 165: 38-58.

Phillips PJ, Schubert C, Argue D, Fisher I, Furlong ET, Foreman W, et al. Concentrations of hormones, pharmaceuticals and other micropollutants in groundwater affected by septic systems in New England and New York. Sci Total Environ 2015; 512-513: 43-54.

US EPA. Underground Storage Tanks (USTs). US EPA 2013. https: //

Yanxun S, Yani W, Hui Q, Yuan F. Analysis of the groundwater and soil pollution by oil leakage. Procedia Environ Sci 2011; 11: 939-44.

Gallert C, Fund K, Winter J. Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in raw and biologically treated sewage and in groundwater below leaking sewers. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2005; 69: 106-12.

Carrara C, Ptacek CJ, Robertson WD, Blowes DW, Moncur MC, Sverko E, et al. Fate of pharmaceutical and trace organic compounds in three septic system plumes, Ontario, Canada. Environ Sci Technol 2008; 42: 2805-11.

Albaiges J, Casado F, Ventura F. Organic indicators of groundwater pollution by a sanitary landfill. Water Res 1986; 20: 1153-9.

Barnes KK, Christenson SC, Kolpin DW, Focazio MJ, Furlong ET, Zaugg SD, et al. Pharmaceuticals and other organic waste water contaminants within a leachate plume downgradient of a municipal landfill. Groundw Monit Remediat 2004; 24: 119-26.

Schmidt KD, Sherman I. Effect of irrigation on groundwater quality in California. J Irrig Drain Eng 1987; 113: 16-29.

Aga DS, Goldfish R, Kulshrestha P. Application of ELISA in determining the fate of tetracyclines in land-applied livestock wastes. Analyst 2003; 128: 658-62.

Nödler K, Licha T, Bester K, Sauter M. Development of a multi-residue analytical method, based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, for the simultaneous determination of 46 micro-contaminants in aqueous samples. J Chromatogr A 2010; 1217: 6511-21.

Martínez C, Ramírez N, Gómez V, Pocurull E, Borrull F. Simultaneous determination of 76 micropollutants in water samples by headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Talanta 2013; 116: 937-45.

Delle Site A. Factors affecting sorption of organic compounds in natural sorbent/water systems and sorption coefficients for selected pollutants. A review. J Phys Chem Ref Data 2001; 30: 187-439.

Weber WJ, McGinley PM, Katz LE. Sorption phenomena in subsurface systems: Concepts, models and effects on contaminant fate and transport. Water Res 1991; 25: 499- 528.

Banzhaf S, Hebig KH. Use of column experiments to investigate the fate of organic micropollutants - a review. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci Katlenburg-Lindau 2016; 20: 3719-37.

Chiou CT, Peters LJ, Freed VH. A physical concept of soilwater equilibria for nonionic organic compounds. Science 1979; 206: 831-2.

Karickhoff SW. Organic pollutant sorption in aquatic systems. J Hydraul Eng 1984; 110: 707-35.

Bermúdez-Couso A, Fernández-Calviño D, Rodríguez- Salgado I, Nóvoa-Muñoz JC, Arias-Estévez M. Comparison of batch, stirred flow chamber, and column experiments to study adsorption, desorption and transport of carbofuran within two acidic soils. Chemosphere 2012; 88: 106-12.

Hebig KH, Groza LG, Sabourin MJ, Scheytt TJ, Ptacek CJ. Transport behavior of the pharmaceutical compounds carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, and naproxen, and the lifestyle drug caffeine, in saturated laboratory columns. Sci Total Environ 2017; 590-591: 708- 19.

Garbarini DR, Lion LW. Influence of the nature of soil organics on the sorption of toluene and trichloroethylene. Environ Sci Technol 1986; 20: 1263-9.

Chiou CT, Malcolm RL, Brinton TI, Kile DE. Water solubility enhancement of some organic pollutants and pesticides by dissolved humic and fulvic acids. Environ Sci Technol 1986; 20: 502-8.

Koelmans AA, Jonker MTO, Cornelissen G, Bucheli TD, Van Noort PCM, Gustafsson Ö. Black carbon: The reverse of its dark side. Chemosphere 2006; 63: 365-77.

Prevedouros K, Palm-Cousins A, Gustafsson Ö, Cousins IT. Development of a black carbon-inclusive multi-media model: Application for PAHs in Stockholm. Chemosphere 2008; 70: 607-15.

Doucette WJ. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for predicting soil-sediment sorption coefficients for organic chemicals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2003; 22: 1771-88.

Nkedi-Kizza P, Rao PSC, Hornsby AG. Influence of organic cosolvents on sorption of hydrophobic organic chemicals by soils. Environ Sci Technol 1985; 19: 975-9.

Fu Jaw‐Kwei, Luthy Richard G. Effect of organic solvent on sorption of aromatic solutes onto soils. J Environ Eng 1986; 112: 346-66.

Nkedi-Kizza P, Brusseau ML, Rao PSC, Hornsby AG. Nonequilibrium sorption during displacement of hydrophobic organic chemicals and calcium-45 through soil columns with aqueous and mixed solvents. Environ Sci Technol 1989; 23: 814-20.

Chen CS, Tseng S-J. Effects of cosolvent and temperature on the desorption of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated sediments of Chien-Jen River, Taiwan. Soil Sediment Contam Boca Raton 2007; 16: 507-21.

Piatt JJ, Backhus DA, Capel PD, Eisenreich SJ. Temperature-dependent sorption of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene to low organic carbon aquifer sediments. Environ Sci Technol 1996; 30: 751-60.

Rubino JT, Berryhill WS. Effects of solvent polarity on the acid dissociation constants of benzoic acids. J Pharm Sci 1986; 75: 182-6.

Gowland JA, Schmid GH. Two linear correlations of pKa vs. solvent composition. Can J Chem 1969; 47: 2953-8.

Lorphensri O, Sabatini DA, Kibbey TCG, Osathaphan K, Saiwan C. Sorption and transport of acetaminophen, 17α- ethynyl estradiol, nalidixic acid with low organic content aquifer sand. Water Res 2007; 41: 2180-8.

Brusseau ML, Rao PSC, Gillham RW. Sorption nonideality during organic contaminant transport in porous media. Crit Rev Environ Control 1989; 19: 33-99.

Pignatello JJ, Xing B. Mechanisms of slow sorption of organic chemicals to natural particles. Environ Sci Technol 1996; 30: 1-11.

Pignatello JJ. The measurement and interpretation of sorption and desorption rates for organic compounds in soil media. In: Sparks DL, editor. Adv. Agron., vol. 69, Academic Press; 1999, p. 1-73.

Jaekel U, Georgescu A, Vereecken H. Asymptotic analysis of nonlinear equilibrium solute transport in porous media. Water Resour Res 1996; 32: 3093-8.

Abulaban A, Nieber JL. Modeling the effects of nonlinear equilibrium sorption on the transport of solute plumes in saturated heterogeneous porous media. Adv Water Resour 2000; 23: 893-905.

Adomian G, Serrano SE. Stochastic contaminant transport equation in porous media. Appl Math Lett 1998; 11: 53-5.

Abulaban A, Nieber JL, Misra D. Modeling plume behavior for nonlinearly sorbing solutes in saturated homogeneous porous media. Adv Water Resour 1998; 21: 487-98.

Serrano SE. Propagation of nonlinear reactive contaminants in porous media: Propagation of nonlinear reactive contaminants. Water Resour Res 2003; 39.

Maraqa MA. Retardation of nonlinearly sorbed solutes in porous media. J Environ Eng 2007; 133: 1080-7. 9372(2007)133:12(1080)

Brusseau ML, Russo AE, Schnaar G. Nonideal transport of contaminants in heterogeneous porous media: 9 - Impact of contact time on desorption and elution tailing. Chemosphere 2012; 89: 287-92.

Hu MQ, Brusseau ML. Coupled effects of nonlinear, ratelimited sorption and biodegradation on transport of 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in soil. Environ Toxicol Chem 1998; 17: 1673-80.

Weber WJ, Miller CT. Modeling the sorption of hydrophobic contaminants by aquifer materials-I. Rates and equilibria. Water Res 1988; 22: 457-64.

Young DF, Ball WP. Two-region linear/nonlinear sorption modeling: Batch and column experiments. Environ Toxicol Chem 1999; 18: 1686-93.

Appert-Collin JC, Dridi-Dhaouadi S, Simonnot MO, Sardin M. Nonlinear sorption of naphthalene and phenanthrene during saturated transport in natural porous media. Phys Chem Earth Part B Hydrol Oceans Atmosphere 1999; 24: 543-8.

Huang W, Peng P, Yu Z, Fu J. Effects of organic matter heterogeneity on sorption and desorption of organic contaminants by soils and sediments. Appl Geochem 2003; 18: 955-72.

Hutzler NJ, Crittenden JC, Gierke JS, Johnson AS. Transport of organic compounds with saturated groundwater flow: Experimental results. Water Resour Res 1986; 22: 285-95.

Roberts PV, Goltz MN, Mackay DM. A natural gradient experiment on solute transport in a sand aquifer: 3. Retardation estimates and mass balances for organic solutes. Water Resour Res 1986; 22: 2047-58.

Brusseau ML, Srivastava R. Nonideal transport of reactive solutes in heterogeneous porous media 2. Quantitative analysis of the Borden natural-gradient field experiment. J Contam Hydrol 1997; 28: 115-55.

Shepherd KA, Rivett M, Mitchener RGR. Organic contaminant sorption in Triassic sandstone deposits in Birmingham, UK, 2002.

Jean J-S, Tsai C-L, Ju S-H, Tsao C-W, Wang S-M. Biodegradation and transport of benzene, toluene, and xylenes in a simulated aquifer: comparison of modelled and experimental results. Hydrol Process 2002; 16: 3151-68.

Rao PSC, Davidson JM. Adsorption and movement of selected pesticides at high concentrations in soils. Water Res 1979; 13: 375-80.

Schwarzenbach RP, Westall J. Transport of nonpolar organic compounds from surface water to groundwater. Laboratory sorption studies. Environ Sci Technol 1981; 15: 1360-7.

Mackay DM, Roberts PV, Cherry JA. Transport of organic contaminants in groundwater. Environ Sci Technol 1985; 19: 384-92.

Maraqa MA, Zhao X, Wallace RB, Voice TC. Retardation coefficients of nonionic organic compounds determined by batch and column techniques. Soil Sci Soc Am J 1998; 62: 142-52.

Pang L, Close ME. Non-equilibrium transport of Cd in alluvial gravels. J Contam Hydrol 1999; 36: 185-206.

Fetter CW, Boving T, Kreamer D. Contaminant Hydrogeology, Third Edition. Waveland Press, Inc.; 2017.

Fesch C, Simon W, Haderlein SB, Reichert P, Schwarzenbach RP. Nonlinear sorption and nonequilibrium solute transport in aggregated porous media: Experiments, process identification and modeling. J Contam Hydrol 1998; 31: 373-407.

van Genuchten MT, Wierenga PJ, O’Connor GA. Mass transfer studies in sorbing porous media: III. Experimental evaluation with 2,4,5-T 1. Soil Sci Soc Am J 1977; 41: 278- 85.

Kan AT, Fu G, Tomson MB. Adsorption/desorption hysteresis in organic pollutant and soil/sediment interaction. Environ Sci Technol 1994; 28: 859-67.

Huang W, Weber WJ. A distributed reactivity model for sorption by soils and sediments. 10. Relationships between desorption, hysteresis, and the chemical characteristics of organic domains. Environ Sci Technol 1997; 31: 2562-9.

Jonge LWD, Jonge HD, Moldrup P, Jacobsen OH, Christensen BT. Sorption of prochloraz on primary soil organomineral size separates. J Environ Qual 2000; 29: 206- 13.

Gamst J, Olesen T, De Jonge H, Moldrup P, Rolston DE. Nonsingularity of naphthalene sorption in soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 2001; 65: 1622-33.

Pot V, Šimůnek J, Benoit P, Coquet Y, Yra A, Martínez- Cordón M-J. Impact of rainfall intensity on the transport of two herbicides in undisturbed grassed filter strip soil cores. J Contam Hydrol 2005; 81: 63-88.

Köhne JM, Köhne S, Šimůnek J. Multi-process herbicide transport in structured soil columns: Experiments and model analysis. J Contam Hydrol 2006; 85: 1-32.

Dousset S, Thevenot M, Pot V, Šimunek J, Andreux F. Evaluating equilibrium and non-equilibrium transport of bromide and isoproturon in disturbed and undisturbed soil columns. J Contam Hydrol 2007; 94: 261-76.

Sander M, Pignatello JJ. Sorption irreversibility of 1,4- dichlorobenzene in two natural organic matter-rich geosorbents. Environ Toxicol Chem 2009; 28: 447-57.

Di Toro DM, Horzempa LM. Reversible and resistant components of PCB adsorption-desorption: isotherms. Environ Sci Technol 1982; 16: 594-602.

Drori Y, Lam B, Simpson A, Aizenshtat Z, Chefetz B. The role of lipids on sorption characteristics of freshwater- and wastewater-irrigated soils. J Environ Qual 2006; 35: 2154-61.

Drori Y, Aizenshtat Z, Chefetz B. Sorption of organic compounds to humin from soils irrigated with reclaimed wastewater. Geoderma 2008; 145: 98-106.

Huang W, Yu H, Weber WJ. Hysteresis in the sorption and desorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants by soils and sediments: 1. A comparative analysis of experimental protocols. J Contam Hydrol 1998; 31: 129-48.

Altfelder S, Streck T, Richter J. Nonsingular sorption of organic compounds in soil: The role of slow kinetics. J Environ Qual 2000; 29: 917-25.

Sabbah I, Ball WP, Young DF, Bouwer EJ. Misinterpretations in the modeling of contaminant desorption from environmental solids when equilibrium conditions are not fully understood. Environ Eng Sci 2005; 22: 350-66.

Altfelder S, Streck T. Capability and limitations of first-order and diffusion approaches to describe long-term sorption of chlortoluron in soil. J Contam Hydrol 2006; 86: 279-98.

Masciopinto C, Passarella G. Mass-transfer impact on solute mobility in porous media: A new mobile-immobile model. J Contam Hydrol 2018; 215: 21-8.

Culver TB, Hallisey SP, Sahoo D, Deitsch JJ, Smith JA. Modeling the desorption of organic contaminants from longterm contaminated soil using distributed mass transfer rates. Environ Sci Technol 1997; 31: 1581-8.

Chen W, Wagenet RJ. Description of atrazine transport in soil with heterogeneous nonequilibrium sorption. Soil Sci Soc Am J 1997; 61: 360-71.

Maraqa MA, Zhao X, Lee J, Allan F, Voice TC. Comparison of nonideal sorption formulations in modeling the transport of phthalate esters through packed soil columns. J Contam Hydrol 2011; 125: 57-69.

Pignatello JJ, Ferrandino FJ, Huang LQ. Elution of aged and freshly added herbicides from a soil. Environ Sci Technol 1993; 27: 1563-71.

van Genuchten MT, Wagenet RJ. Two site/two region models for pesticide transport and degradation: theoretical development and analytical solutions. Soil Sci Soc Am J 1989; 53: 1303-10.

Carrera J, Sánchez-vila X, Benet I, Medina A, Galarza G, Guimerà J. On matrix diffusion: formulations, solution methods and qualitative effects. Hydrogeol J Heidelb 1998; 6: 178-90.

Connaughton DF, Stedinger JR, Lion LW, Shuler ML. Description of time-varying desorption kinetics: release of naphthalene from contaminated soils. Environ Sci Technol 1993; 27: 2397-403.

Haggerty R, Gorelick SM. Multiple-rate mass transfer for modeling diffusion and surface reactions in media with porescale heterogeneity. Water Resour Res 1995; 31: 2383-400.

Johnson GR, Gupta K, Putz DK, Hu Q, Brusseau ML. The effect of local-scale physical heterogeneity and nonlinear, rate-limited sorption/desorption on contaminant transport in porous media. J Contam Hydrol 2003; 64: 35-58.

Johnson GR, Zhang Z, Brusseau ML. Characterizing and quantifying the impact of immiscible-liquid dissolution and nonlinear, rate-limited sorption/desorption on lowconcentration elution tailing. Water Resour Res 2003; 39.

Pedit JA, Miller CT. Heterogeneous sorption processes in subsurface systems. 1. Model formulations and applications. Environ Sci Technol 1994; 28: 2094-104.

Saiers JE, Tao G. Evaluation of continuous distribution models for rate-limited solute adsorption to geologic media. Water Resour Res 2000; 36: 1627-39.

Johnson GR, Norris DK, Brusseau ML. Mass removal and low-concentration tailing of trichloroethene in freshlyamended, synthetically-aged, and field-contaminated aquifer material. Chemosphere 2009; 75: 542-8.

Kempf A, Brusseau ML. Impact of non-ideal sorption on lowconcentration tailing behavior for atrazine transport in two natural porous media. Chemosphere 2009; 77: 877-82.

Werth CJ, Hansen KM. Modeling the effects of concentration history on the slow desorption of trichloroethene from a soil at 100% relative humidity. J Contam Hydrol 2002; 54: 307- 27.

Cunningham JA, Roberts PV. Use of temporal moments to investigate the effects of nonuniform grain-size distribution on the transport of sorbing solutes. Water Resour Res 1998; 34: 1415-25.

Harvey CF, Gorelick SM. Temporal moment-generating equations: Modeling transport and mass transfer in heterogeneous aquifers. Water Resour Res 1995; 31: 1895- 911.

Luo J, Cirpka OA, Dentz M, Carrera J. Temporal moments for transport with mass transfer described by an arbitrary memory function in heterogeneous media. Water Resour Res 2008; 44.

Valocchi AJ. Validity of the local equilibrium assumption for modeling sorbing solute transport through homogeneous soils. Water Resour Res 1985; 21: 808-20.

Berkowitz B, Cortis A, Dentz M, Scher H. Modeling non- Fickian transport in geological formations as a continuous time random walk. Rev Geophys 2006; 44.

Berkowitz B, Scher H. Theory of anomalous chemical transport in random fracture networks. Phys Rev E 1998; 57: 5858-69.

Dentz M, Berkowitz B. Transport behavior of a passive solute in continuous time random walks and multirate mass transfer. Water Resour Res 2003; 39.

Dentz M, Cortis A, Scher H, Berkowitz B. Time behavior of solute transport in heterogeneous media: transition from anomalous to normal transport. Adv Water Resour 2004; 27: 155-73.

Benson DA, Wheatcraft SW, Meerschaert MM. Application of a fractional advection-dispersion equation. Water Resour Res 2000; 36: 1403-12.

Schumer R, Benson DA, Meerschaert MM, Baeumer B. Fractal mobile/immobile solute transport. Water Resour Res 2003; 39.

Schumer R, Meerschaert MM, Baeumer B. Fractional advection-dispersion equations for modeling transport at the Earth surface. J Geophys Res Earth Surf 2009; 114.

Di Toro DM. A particle interaction model of reversible organic chemical sorption. Chemosphere 1985; 14: 1503-38.

Maraqa M. Effects of fundamental differences between batch and miscible displacement techniques on sorption distribution coefficient. Environ Geol 2001; 41: 219-28.

Young DF, Ball WP. Column experimental design requirements for estimating model parameters from temporal moments under nonequilibrium conditions. Adv Water Resour 2000; 23: 449-60.

Thorbjarnarson KW, Mackay DM. A forced-gradient experiment on solute transport in the Borden aquifer: 2. Transport and dispersion of the conservative tracer. Water Resour Res 1994; 30: 385-99.

Hu Q, Wang X, Brusseau ML. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for evaluating the influence of sorbate structure on sorption of organic compounds by soil. Environ Toxicol Chem 1995; 14: 1133-40.

Benker E, Davis GB, Barry DA. Estimating the retardation coefficient of trichloroethene for a sand aquifer low in sediment organic carbon-a comparison of methods. J Contam Hydrol 1998; 30: 157-78.

Kim CG, Clarke WP, Lockington D. Determination of retardation coefficients of sulfolane and thiolane on soils by Kow-Koc and solubility parameter, batch and column experiments. Environ Geol 2000; 39: 741-9.

Murillo-Torres R, Durán-Álvarez JC, Prado B, Jiménez- Cisneros BE. Sorption and mobility of two micropollutants in three agricultural soils: A comparative analysis of their behavior in batch and column experiments. Geoderma 2012; 189-190: 462-8.

Mark N, Arthur J, Dontsova K, Brusseau M, Taylor S, Šimůnek J. Column transport studies of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol- 5-one (NTO) in soils. Chemosphere 2017; 171: 427-34.

Khandelwal A, Rabideau AJ, Shen P. Analysis of diffusion and sorption of organic solutes in soil-bentonite barrier materials. Environ Sci Technol 1998; 32: 1333-9.

Gaber HM, Inskeep WP, Comfort SD, El-Attar HA. A test of the local equilibrium assumption for adsorption and transport of picloram. Soil Sci Soc Am J 1992; 56: 1392-400.

Ptacek CJ, Gillham RW. Laboratory and field measurements of non-equilibrium transport in the Borden aquifer, Ontario, Canada. J Contam Hydrol 1992; 10: 119-58.

Thorbjarnarson KW, Mackay DM. A forced-gradient experiment on solute transport in the Borden aquifer: 3. Nonequilibrium transport of the sorbing organic compounds. Water Resour Res 1994; 30: 401-19.

Casey FXM, Hakk H, Šimůnek J, Larsen GL. Fate and transport of testosterone in agricultural soils. Environ Sci Technol 2004; 38: 790-8.

Hanna K, Lassabatere L, Bechet B. Transport of two naphthoic acids and salicylic acid in soil: Experimental study and empirical modeling. Water Res 2012; 46: 4457-67.

Liu H, Zhang D, Li M, Tong L, Feng L. Competitive adsorption and transport of phthalate esters in the clay layer of JiangHan plain, China. Chemosphere 2013; 92: 1542-9.

Bertelkamp C, Reungoat J, Cornelissen ER, Singhal N, Reynisson J, Cabo AJ, et al. Sorption and biodegradation of organic micropollutants during river bank filtration: A laboratory column study. Water Res 2014; 52: 231-41.

Bouchard DC, Wood AL, Campbell ML, Nkedi-Kizza P, Rao PSC. Sorption nonequilibrium during solute transport. J Contam Hydrol 1988; 2: 209-23.

Nkedi-Kizza P, Rao PSC, Hornsby AG. Influence of organic cosolvents on leaching of hydrophobic organic chemicals through soils. Environ Sci Technol 1987; 21: 1107-11.

Zhao X, Szafranski MJ, Maraqa MA, Voice TC. Sorption and bioavailability of carbon tetrachloride in a low organic content sandy soil. Environ Toxicol Chem 1999; 18: 1755-62.

Bi E, Schmidt TC, Haderlein SB. Practical issues relating to soil column chromatography for sorption parameter determination. Chemosphere 2010; 80: 787-93.

Carmichael LM, Smith TG, Pardieck DL. Site-specific sorption values for mixtures of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in sandy soils. J Environ Qual 1999; 28: 888-97.

Thomsen AB, Henriksen K, Grøn C, Møldrup P. Sorption, transport, and degradation of quinoline in unsaturated soil. Environ Sci Technol 1999; 33: 2891-8.

Löffler D, Römbke J, Meller M, Ternes TA. Environmental fate of pharmaceuticals in water/sediment systems. Environ Sci Technol 2005; 39: 5209-18.

Maeng SK, Sharma SK, Abel CDT, Magic-Knezev A, Amy GL. Role of biodegradation in the removal of pharmaceutically active compounds with different bulk organic matter characteristics through managed aquifer recharge: Batch and column studies. Water Res 2011; 45: 4722-36.

Yamamoto H, Nakamura Y, Moriguchi S, Nakamura Y, Honda Y, Tamura I, et al. Persistence and partitioning of eight selected pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment: Laboratory photolysis, biodegradation, and sorption experiments. Water Res 2009; 43: 351-62.

Burke V, Treumann S, Duennbier U, Greskowiak J, Massmann G. Sorption behavior of 20 wastewater originated micropollutants in groundwater — Column experiments with pharmaceutical residues and industrial agents. J Contam Hydrol 2013; 154: 29-41.

Schaffer M, Licha T. A framework for assessing the retardation of organic molecules in groundwater: Implications of the species distribution for the sorption-influenced transport. Sci Total Environ 2015; 524-525: 187-94.

Stephanatos BN, Walter K, Funk A, MacGregor A. Pitfalls associated with the assumption of a constant partition coefficient in modeling sorbing solute transport through the subsurface. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Ground Water. Nashville, Tenn. ASCE 1991; pp. 13-20.

Lee LS, Rao PSC, Brusseau ML, Ogwada RA. Nonequilibrium sorption of organic contaminants during flow through columns of aquifer materials. Environ Toxicol Chem 1988; 7: 779-93.

Maclntyre WG, Stauffer TB, Antworth CP. A comparison of sorption coefficients determined by batch, column, and box methods on a low organic carbon aquifer material. Groundwater 1991; 29: 908-13.

Bayard R, Barna L, Mahjoub B, Gourdon R. Investigation of naphthalene sorption in soils and soil fractions using batch and column assays. Environ Toxicol Chem 1998; 17: 2383- 90.

Celorie JA, Woods SL, Vinson TS, Istok JD. A comparison of sorption equilibrium distribution coefficients using batch and centrifugation methods. J Environ Qual 1989; 18: 307-13.

MacIntyre WG, Stauffer TB. Liquid chromatography applications to determination of sorption on aquifer materials. Chemosphere 1988; 17: 2161-73.

Bilkert JN, Rao PSC. Sorption and leaching of three nonfumigant nematicides in soils. J Environ Sci Health Part B 1985; 20: 1-26.

Perillo CA, Gupta SC, Nater EA, Moncrief JF. Flow velocity effects on the retardation of FD&C blue no. 1 food dye in soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 1998; 62: 39-45.

Kazemi HV, Anderson SH, Goyne KW, Gantzer CJ. Atrazine and alachlor transport in claypan soils as influenced by differential antecedent soil water content. J Environ Qual 2008; 37: 1599-607.

Bi E, Zhang L, Schmidt TC, Haderlein SB. Simulation of nonlinear sorption of N-heterocyclic organic contaminates in soil columns. J Contam Hydrol 2009; 107: 58-65.

Durce D, Landesman C, Grambow B, Ribet S, Giffaut E. Adsorption and transport of polymaleic acid on Callovo- Oxfordian clay stone: Batch and transport experiments. J Contam Hydrol 2014; 164: 308-22.

Williams CF, Watson JE, Nelson SD. Comparison of equilibrium and non-equilibrium distribution coefficients for the human drug carbamazepine in soil. Chemosphere 2014; 95: 166-73.

Johnson JA, Farmer WJ. Batch versus column method for determining distribution of organics between soil and water phases. Soil Sci 1993; 155: 92.

Schweich D, Sardin M, Gaudet J-P. Measurement of a cation exchange isotherm from elution curves obtained in a soil column: Preliminary results. Soil Sci Soc Am J 1983; 47: 32- 7.

O’Connor DJ, Connolly JP. The effect of concentration of adsorbing solids on the partition coefficient. Water Res 1980; 14: 1517-23.

Voice TC, Rice CP, Weber WJ. Effect of solids concentration on the sorptive partitioning of hydrophobic pollutants in aquatic systems. Environ Sci Technol 1983; 17: 513-8.

Brusseau ML. The effect of nonlinear sorption on transformation of contaminants during transport in porous media. J Contam Hydrol 1995; 17: 277-91.

Noordman WH, Brusseau ML, Janssen DB. Adsorption of a multicomponent rhamnolipid surfactant to soil. Environ Sci Technol 2000; 34: 832-8.

Brusseau ML, Larsen T, Christensen TH. Rate-limited sorption and nonequilibrium transport of organic chemicals in low organic carbon aquifer materials. Water Resour Res 1991; 27: 1137-45.

Brusseau ML, Jessup RE, Rao PSC. Nonequilibrium sorption of organic chemicals: elucidation of rate-limiting processes. Environ Sci Technol 1991; 25: 134-42.

Altfelder S, Streck T, Maraqa MA, Voice TC. Nonequilibrium sorption of dimethylphthalate-Compatibility of batch and column techniques. Soil Sci Soc Am J 2001; 65: 102-11.

Lion LW, Stauffef TB, MacIntyre WG. Sorption of hydrophobic compounds on aquifer materials: analysis methods and the effect of organic carbon. J Contam Hydrol 1990; 5: 215-34.

Nkedi‐ Kizza P, Biggar JW, van Genuchten MT, Wierenga PJ, Selim HM, Davidson JM, et al. Modeling tritium and chloride 36 transport through an aggregated oxisol. Water Resour Res 1983; 19: 691-700.

Maraqa MA, B. Wallace R, C. Voice T. Effects of degree of water saturation on dispersivity and immobile water in sandy soil columns. J Contam Hydrol 1997; 25: 199-218.

Maraqa MA. Ability of single-rate models to predict solute distribution coefficients in systems with heterogeneous sorption kinetics. Transp Porous Media 2016; 112: 765-81.

Tinnacher RM, Honeyman BD. Theoretical analysis of kinetic effects on the quantitative comparison of Kd values and contaminant retardation factors. J Contam Hydrol 2010; 118: 1-12.

Limousin G, Gaudet J-P, Charlet L, Szenknect S, Barthès V, Krimissa M. Sorption isotherms: A review on physical bases, modeling and measurement. Appl Geochem 2007; 22: 249- 75.

Wauchope RD, Yeh S, Linders JBHJ, Kloskowski R, Tanaka K, Rubin B, et al. Pesticide soil sorption parameters: theory, measurement, uses, limitations and reliability. Pest Manag Sci 2002; 58: 419-45. doi: 10.1002/ps.489.

Ahmad R, Katou H, Kookana RS. Measuring sorption of hydrophilic organic compounds in soils by an unsaturated transient flow method. J Environ Qual 2005; 34: 1045-54.

Wehrer M, Totsche KU. Detection of non-equilibrium contaminant release in soil columns: Delineation of experimental conditions by numerical simulations. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 2003; 166: 475-83.

Heyse E, Dai D, Suresh C. Rao P, Delfino JJ. Development of a continuously stirred flow cell for investigating sorption mass transfer. J Contam Hydrol 1997; 25: 337-55.

Pang L, Goltz M, Close M. Application of the method of temporal moments to interpret solute transport with sorption and degradation. J Contam Hydrol 2003; 60: 123-34.

Ngo VV, Michel J, Gujisaite V, Latifi A, Simonnot M-O. Parameters describing nonequilibrium transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons through contaminated soil columns: Estimability analysis, correlation, and optimization. J Contam Hydrol 2014; 158: 93-109.

Schnaar G, Brusseau ML. Nonideal transport of contaminants in heterogeneous porous media: 11. Testing the experiment condition dependency of the continuous distribution rate model for sorption-desorption. Water Air Soil Pollut 2014; 225: 1-9.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2018 Munjed A. Maraqa