AbstractWatershed fingerprinting or geochemical tracing of hydrologic pathways and processes involves the strategic spatial and temporal collection of water samples for chemical indicators. We used the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen and major cations and anions found in fresh water systems to infer total phosphorus (TP) movement and storage in a small Midwestern rural/urban watershed. Typically in Minnesota, water chemistry is dominated by calcium and magnesium charge balanced by bicarbonate alkalinity unless altered by human activity. Ion concentrations will vary in a landscape depending on the relative amounts of new precipitation added to the sampled water. Pre-event water found in lakes, wetlands and groundwater are influenced by biotic and abiotic factors such as organic carbon and soil/rock mineralogy. Results of this study suggested that historically high concentrations of TP from years of wastewater treatment plant discharge were trapped in a down gradient wetland system. We inferred that new cleaner wastewater discharge may drive a change in equilibrium phosphorus concentration between sediment stored TP and event-based flow. Redirecting flow around TP wetland sinks will help prevent long-term down river water quality impairment.
North Fork Crow and Lower Crow Bacteria, Turbidity and Low Dissolved Oxygen TMDL Assessment Report. Wenck Associates. Inc 2013.
Sander D, Gieseke J, and Bergen H. Crow River Diagnostic Study Clean Water Partnership Project Report. C.R.O.W Joint Powers Board, Buffalo, MN 2003.
Brunet RC, Astin KB. A 12-month sediment and nutrient budget in a floodplain reach of the River Adour, southwest France. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 2000; 16(3): 267-277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1646(200005/06)16:3<267::AID-RRR584>3.0.CO;2-4
Molinero J and Pozo J. Organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes associated with leaf litter in two small streams with different riparian vegetation: a budget approach. Arch Hydrobiol 2006; 166(3): 363-385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1127/0003-9136/2006/0166-0363
Newbery DMcC, Alexander IJ and Rother JA. Phosphorus dynamics in a lowland African rain forest: the influence of ectomycorrhizal trees. Ecological Momographs 1997; 67(3): 367-409. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2963460
Bowes MJ, House WA and Hodgkinson RA. Phosphorus dynamics along a river continuum. The Science of the Total Environment. 2003; 313: 199-212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(03)00260-2
Brett MT, Mueller SE and Arhonditsis GB. A daily time series analysis of stream water phosphorus concentrations along an urban to forest gradient. Environmental Management 2005; 35: 310.
McGuire KJ, DeWalle DR and Gburek WJ. Evaluation of mean residence time in subsurface waters using oxygen-18 fluctuations during drought conditions in the mid- Appalachians. Journal of Hydrology 2002; 261: 132-149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(02)00006-9
Zhang Y, Zhou A, Zhou J, Liu C, Cai H, Liu Y, et al. Evaluating the source and fate of nitrate in the alluvial aquifers in the Shijiazhuang rural and suburban area, China: hydrochemical and multi-isotopic approaches Water 2015; 7(4): 1515-1537. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/w7041515
Environmental Isotopes in the Hydrological Cycle: Principles and Applications. International Atomic Energy Agency and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Vol. 3.
Jǿrgensen SE. Integration of Ecosystem Theories: A Pattern. 3rd ed. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands 2002; 428 pp. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-0381-0
Magner JA and Alexander SC. Geochemical and isotopic tracing of water in nested southern Minnesota corn-belt watersheds. Water Science and Technology 2002; 45: 37-42.
Komor SC and Magner JA. Nitrate in ground water and water sources used by riparian trees in an agricultural watershed: a chemical and isotopic investigation in southern Minnesota. Water Resources Research 1996; 32: 1039-1050. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/95WR03815
Magner JA and Brooks KN. Integrating Sentinel Watershed- Systems into the Monitoring and Assessment of Minnesota's (USA) Waters Quality. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 2008; 138: 149-158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-9752-9
Alexander SC and Alexander Jr EC. QA/QC methods for major cation/anion analysis. Department of Geology and Geophysics. Univ of Minnesota Mpls Mn 1992.
Drimmie R. Environmental Isotope Lab 2002. http://sciborg.uwaterloo.ca/~rkhmskrk/.
Methods of Soil Analysis: chemical and microbial properties. Agronomy Monograph #9 Agronomy Society of America, Madison WI. www.asa.org.
Davis SN, Whittemore DO and Fabryka-Martin J. Uses of Chloride/Bromide Ratios in Studies of Potable Water. Ground Water 1998; 36: 338-350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.1998.tb01099.x
Mitsch WJ and Jǿrgensen SE. Ecological Engineering and Ecosystem Restoration. John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ 2004; 411 pp.
Richardson CJ and Marshall PE. Processes controlling movement, storage, and export of phosphorus in a fen peatland. Ecological Monographs 1986; 56: 279-302. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1942548
Vanderlangenberg SM, Canfield JT and Magner JA. Minnesota malformed frogs: surveys and site characterization at three paired landscapes in Minnesota, USA. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 2003; 82: 45-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021684723301
Magner J, Johnson G, Munir H, Klang J and Larson T. Low dissolved oxygen TMDL's: critical thresholds associated with land-use and landscape. In: proc. of WEF TMDL 2003 Conference, Chicago IL.
Cormier S, Norton SB and Suter II G. Stressor Identification Guidance Document. USEPA. 2000; 822-B-00-025. www.epa.gov