Utilizing Three Different Biochars for Attenuation of Toxic Acidic Mine Spoils Reflected by Lixiviate Quality Vis-a-Vis Phyto-Toxicity on Ocimum sanctum and Cassia angustifolia
Keywords:Biochar, Cassia angustifolia, germination, mine spoil, Ocimum sanctum
Acidic mine rejects of pyretic sulphur coal mines were treated with biochar prepared from different feedstocks (distilled waste of Cymbopogonflexuosus (lemongrass) and Cymbopogonwinterianus (Citronella) and the bark of Eucalyptuscitriodora. The quality of lixiviate collected at three intervals (0, 15, and 30 days) from each treated and untreated mine waste was examined, and holy basil (Ocimumsanctum) and East Indian senna (Cassiaangustifolia) bioassays were carried out. Results indicate that all three biochars improve the lixiviate quality, i.e., Enhanced the pH of lixiviate up to 3 units and reduces phytotoxicity. However, their magnitude of impact on lixiviates quality and phytotoxicity was different. The biochar prepared from the distilled waste of Cymbopogonflexuosus showed more promising results. The neutralizing capacity and dissolved organic carbon content were the significant factors for the discrimination of the amendments. The tolerance of O. sanctum and C. angustifolia was significantly different from each other for a particular treatment.
Ahmad M, Rajapaksha AU, Lim JE, Zhang M, Bolan N, Mohan D, et al. Biochar as a sorbent for contaminant management in soil and water: a review. Chemosphere 2014; 99: 19-33.
Al-Wabel MI, Usman ARA, Al-Farraj AS, Ok YS, Abduljabbar A, Al-Faraj AI, et al. Date palm waste biochars alter a soil respiration, microbial biomass carbon, and heavy metal mobility in contaminated mined soil. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 2017: 1-18.
Alexis M, Rasse DP, Rumpel C, Bardoux G, Péchot N, Schmalzer P, et al. Fire impact on C and N losses and charcoal production in a scrub oak ecosystem. Biogeochemistry 2007; 82: 201-216.
Bae J, Benoit DL, Watson AK. Effect of heavy metals on seed germination and seedling growth of common ragweed and roadside ground cover legumes. Environmental Pollution 2016; 213: 112-118.
Bakshi S, He ZL, Harris WG. Biochar amendment affects leaching potential of copper and nutrient release behavior in contaminated sandy soils. Journal of environmental quality 2014; 43: 1894-1902.
Baruah B, Khare P. Mobility of trace and potentially harmful elements in the environment from high sulfur Indian coal mines. Applied Geochemistry 2010; 25: 1621-1631.
Beesley L, Dickinson N. Carbon and trace element mobility in an urban soil amended with green waste compost. Journal of Soils and Sediments 2010; 10: 215-222.
Beesley L, Inneh OS, Norton GJ, Moreno-Jimenez E, Pardo T, Clemente R, et al. Assessing the influence of compost and biochar amendments on the mobility and toxicity of metals and arsenic in a naturally contaminated mine soil. Environmental Pollution 2014; 186: 195-202.
Biederman LA, Harpole WS. Biochar and its effects on plant productivity and nutrient cycling: a meta‐analysis. GCB bioenergy 2013; 5: 202-214.
Boehm H. Some aspects of the surface chemistry of carbon blacks and other carbons. Carbon 1994; 32: 759-769.
Ceylan Y, Kutman UB, Mengutay M, Cakmak I. Magnesium applications to growth medium and foliage affect the starch distribution, increase the grain size and improve the seed germination in wheat. Plant and Soil 2016; 406: 145-156.
Courtney R, Mullen G. Use of germination and seedling performance bioassays for assessing revegetation strategies on bauxite residue. Water, air, and soil pollution 2009; 197: 15-22.
Czabator FJ. Germination value: an index combining speed and completeness of pine seed germination. Forest Science 1962; 8: 386-396.
de Vallejuelo SF-O, Gredilla A, da Boit K, Teixeira EC, Sampaio CH, Madariaga JM, et al. Nanominerals and potentially hazardous elements from coal cleaning rejects of abandoned mines: Environmental impact and risk assessment. Chemosphere 2017; 169: 725-733.
Dutta M, Saikia J, Taffarel SR, Waanders FB, de Medeiros D, Cutruneo CM, et al. Environmental assessment and nano-mineralogical characterization of coal, overburden and sediment from Indian coal mining acid drainage. Geoscience Frontiers 2017.
Elmer WH, Pignatello JJ. Effect of biochar amendments on mycorrhizal associations and Fusarium crown and root rot of asparagus in replant soils. Plant Disease 2011; 95: 960-966.
Gartler J, Robinson B, Burton K, Clucas L. Carbonaceous soil amendments to biofortify crop plants with zinc. Science of the Total Environment 2013; 465: 308-313.
González V, García I, Del Moral F, Simón M. Effectiveness of amendments on the spread and phytotoxicity of contaminants in metal–arsenic polluted soil. Journal of hazardous materials 2012; 205: 72-80.
Hu X, Jiang X, Hwang H, Liu S, Guan H. Promotive effects of alginate-derived oligosaccharide on maize seed germination. Journal of applied phycology 2004; 16: 73-76.
Igalavithana AD, Park J, Ryu C, Lee YH, Hashimoto Y, Huang L, et al. Slow pyrolyzed biochars from crop residues for soil metal (loid) immobilization and microbial community abundance in contaminated agricultural soils. Chemosphere 2017; 177: 157-166.
Ippolito J, Berry C, Strawn D, Novak J, Levine J, Harley A. Biochars reduce mine land soil bioavailable metals. Journal of Environmental Quality 2017; 46: 411-419.
IS B. Methods Of Test For Coal And Coke Ultimate Analysis 1, India, 1959, pp. 1352.
Jain S, Baruah B, Khare P. Kinetic leaching of high sulphur mine rejects amended with biochar: buffering implication. Ecological Engineering 2014; 71: 703-709.
Kammann CI, Linsel S, Gößling JW, Koyro H-W. Influence of biochar on drought tolerance of Chenopodium quinoa Willd and on soil–plant relations. Plant and Soil 2011; 345: 195-210.
Kaudal BB, Chen D, Madhavan DB, Downie A, Weatherley A. An examination of physical and chemical properties of urban biochar for use as growing media substrate. Biomass and Bioenergy 2016; 84: 49-58.
Kookana RS, Sarmah AK, Van Zwieten L, Krull E, Singh B. 3 biochar application to soil: agronomic and environmental benefits and unintended consequences. Advances in agronomy 2011; 112: 103-143.
Laird D, Fleming P, Wang B, Horton R, Karlen D. Biochar impact on nutrient leaching from a Midwestern agricultural soil. Geoderma 2010; 158: 436-442.
Lehmann J, Joseph S. Biochar for environmental management: science, technology and implementation: Routledge, 2015.
Lu H, Li Z, Fu S, Méndez A, Gascó G, Paz-Ferreiro J. Combining phytoextraction and biochar addition improves soil biochemical properties in a soil contaminated with Cd. Chemosphere 2015; 119: 209-216.
Martín F, Diez M, García I, Simón M, Dorronsoro C, Iriarte Á, et al. Weathering of primary minerals and mobility of major elements in soils affected by an accidental spill of pyrite tailing. Science of the total environment 2007; 378: 49-52.
Mohamed BA, Ellis N, Kim CS, Bi X, Emam AE-r. Engineered biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass for increasing water-holding capacity and fertility of sandy soil. Science of the Total Environment 2016; 566: 387-397.
Mosley LM, Daly R, Palmer D, Yeates P, Dallimore C, Biswas T, et al. Predictive modelling of pH and dissolved metal concentrations and speciation following mixing of acid drainage with river water. Applied Geochemistry 2015; 59: 1-10.
Nanda S, Dalai AK, Berruti F, Kozinski JA. Biochar as an exceptional bioresource for energy, agronomy, carbon sequestration, activated carbon and specialty materials. Waste and Biomass Valorization 2016; 7: 201-235.
Narzari R, Bordoloi N, Sarma B, Gogoi L, Gogoi N, Borkotoki B, et al. Fabrication of biochars obtained from valorization of biowaste and evaluation of its physicochemical properties. Bioresource Technology 2017.
Obia A, Mulder J, Martinsen V, Cornelissen G, Børresen T. In situ effects of biochar on aggregation, water retention and porosity in light-textured tropical soils. Soil and Tillage Research 2016; 155: 35-44.
Pardo T, Martínez-Fernández D, Clemente R, Walker DJ, Bernal MP. The use of olive-mill waste compost to promote the plant vegetation cover in a trace-element-contaminated soil. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 2014; 21: 1029-1038.
Park JH, Li X, Edraki M, Baumgartl T, Kirsch B. Geochemical assessments and classification of coal mine spoils for better understanding of potential salinity issues at closure. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 2013; 15: 1235-1244.
Silva LF, Izquierdo M, Querol X, Finkelman RB, Oliveira ML, Wollenschlager M, et al. Leaching of potential hazardous elements of coal cleaning rejects. Environmental monitoring and assessment 2011; 175: 109-126.
Singh B, Sherman D, Gilkes R, Wells M, Mosselmans J. Structural chemistry of Fe, Mn, and Ni in synthetic hematites as determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Clays and Clay Minerals 2000; 48: 521-527.
Sohi S, Krull E, Lopez-Capel E, Bol R. A review of biochar and its use and function in soil. Advances in agronomy 2010; 105: 47-82.
Subedi R, Taupe N, Pelissetti S, Petruzzelli L, Bertora C, Leahy JJ, et al. Greenhouse gas emissions and soil properties following amendment with manure-derived biochars: Influence of pyrolysis temperature and feedstock type. Journal of environmental management 2016; 166: 73-83.
Sun J, Drosos M, Mazzei P, Savy D, Todisco D, Vinci G, et al. The molecular properties of biochar carbon released in dilute acidic solution and its effects on maize seed germination. Science of The Total Environment 2017; 576: 858-867.
Tan X, Liu Y, Zeng G, Wang X, Hu X, Gu Y, et al. Application of biochar for the removal of pollutants from aqueous solutions. Chemosphere 2015; 125: 70-85.
Tan Z, Lin CS, Ji X, Rainey TJ. Returning biochar to fields: A review. Applied Soil Ecology 2017; 116: 1-11.
Ubbelohde AR, Lewis FA. Graphite and its crystal compounds: Clarendon Press, 1960.
Van Zwieten L, Kimber S, Morris S, Chan K, Downie A, Rust J, et al. Effects of biochar from slow pyrolysis of papermill waste on agronomic performance and soil fertility. Plant and Soil 2010; 327: 235-246.
Varmuza K, Filzmoser P. Introduction to multivariate statistical analysis in chemometrics: CRC press, 2016.
Vassilev SV, Baxter D, Andersen LK, Vassileva CG. An overview of the composition and application of biomass ash. Part 1. Phase–mineral and chemical composition and classification. Fuel 2013; 105: 40-76.
Wang Y, Hu Y, Zhao X, Wang S, Xing G. Comparisons of biochar properties from wood material and crop residues at different temperatures and residence times. Energy & fuels 2013; 27: 5890-5899.
Wang Y, Li L, Cui W, Xu S, Shen W, Wang R. Hydrogen sulfide enhances alfalfa (Medicago sativa) tolerance against salinity during seed germination by nitric oxide pathway. Plant and soil 2012; 351: 107-119.
Zhao L, Cao X, Mašek O, Zimmerman A. Heterogeneity of biochar properties as a function of feedstock sources and production temperatures. Journal of hazardous materials 2013; 256: 1-9.
Zornoza R, Gómez-Garrido M, Martínez-Martínez S, Gómez-López MD, Faz Á. Bioaugmentaton in Technosols created in abandoned pyritic tailings can contribute to enhance soil C sequestration and plant colonization. Science of the total environment 2017; 593: 357-367.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Puja Khare
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.