Integrated Weed Management in Wheat under Subtropical Rain-Fed Conditions
Keywords:Integrated weed management, weeds, green manuring, herbicides, wheat (Triticum asetivum L.)
AbstractA field experiment was carried out from July, 2013 to May, 2014 at University Research Farm Chakwal Road, of Pir Mehr Ali Shah-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi to evaluate the integrated weed control management strategies followed by summer green manure practices on weeds and grain yield of wheat under rain-fed conditions. The experiment was laid out in a 2-factor factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in strip plot arrangement with three replications of each treatment. The sorghum and sesbania crops were sown in the first week of July, 2013 and incorporated into soil as green manure at the end of August, 2013 after attaining sufficient biomass. The wheat variety â€œChakwal-50â€ was sown with a tractor drawn rabi drill in the last week of October, 2013 with a seeding rate of 125kg ha-1. The herbicides used were buctril super @ 750ml ha-1 and isoproturon @ 1.00kg a.i. ha-1. The weeds found in the wheat crop were Fumaria indica L., Convolvulus arvensis L., Chenonpodium album L., Asphodelus tenuifolius L. The incorporation of sorghum green manuring resulted in good control to suppress the weed population and biomass. The buctril super @ 750ml ha-1 along with tharphali significantly reduced the weed density (18.8 m-2), weed biomass (12.7g m-2) and increased weed control efficiency (71.1%) followed by isoproturon applied @ 1.00kg a.i. ha-1. The highest grains yield of 3208.5kg ha-1 was recorded in the plots where weeds were controlled with buctril super @ 750ml ha-1 followed by tharphali where sorghum green manure was incorporated in summer followed by the isoproturon application @ 1.00kg a.i. ha-1(3016.1kg ha-1) in combination with tharphali in the same green manuring crop.
Abbas SH, Saleem M, Maqsood M, Mujahid MY, Mahmoodul- Hassan and Saleem R. Weed density and grain yield of wheat as affected by spatial arrangements and weeding techniques under rainfed conditions of Pothowar. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Science 2009; 46 (4): 242-247.
Bekelle, A. Assessment and management of weeds in wheat in Debark woreda, North Gonder. Unpublished thesis. Haramaya - Ethiopia: 2004.
Haramoto ER and Gallandt ER. Brassica cover cropping II. Effect on growth and interference of green bean and redroot pigweed. Weed Science 2005; 53: 702-708. http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/WS-04-163R.1
Akbar N, Ehsanullah KJ and Ali MA. Weed management improves yield and quality of direct seeded rice. Australian Journal of Crop Science 2011; 5: 688-694.
Jabran K, Cheema ZA, Farooq M, Basra SMA, Hussain M and Rehman H. Tank mixing of allelopathic crop water extracts with pendimethalin helps in the management of weeds in canola (Brassica napus L.) field. International Journal of Agricultural Biology 2008; 10: 293-296.
Razzaq A, Cheema ZA, Jabran K, Farooq M, Khaliq A and Haider G et al. Weed management in wheat through combination of allelopathic water extracts with reduced doses of herbicides. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research 2010; 16: 247-256.
Rao AN and Nagamani A. Integrated weed management in India-revisited. Indian Journal of Weed Science 2010; 42(3-4): 123-135.
Sanyal D. Introduction to the integrated weed management revisited - symposium paper. Weed Science 2008; 56: 140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/0043-1745(2008)56[140:ITTIWM
Maity SK and Mukherjee K. Integrated weed management practices in dry directseeded summer rice (Oryza sativa). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2009; 79: 976-979.
Sarrantonio M and Gallandt ER. The role of cover crops in North American cropping systems. Journal of Crop Production 2003; 8: 53-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J144v08n01_04
Kruidhof HM, Bastiaans L, Kropff MJ. Ecological weed management by cover cropping, effects on weed growth in autumn and weed establishment in spring. Weed Research 2008; 48: 492-502. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.2008.00665.x
Sharif MM, Cheema ZA and Khaliq A. Reducing herbicide dose in combination with sorghum water extract for weed control in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). International Journal of Agricultural Biology 2005; 7: 560-563.
Teasdale JR and Mohler CL. The quantitative relationship between weed emergence and the physical properties of mulches. Weed Science 2000; 48: 385-392. http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/0043-1745(2000)048[0385:TQRBWE
Cheema ZA, Khaliq A and Muneeb M. Response of wheat and winter weeds to foliar application of different plant water extracts of sorghum. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research 2003; 9(1-2): 89-97.
Ashiq NM and Ahmad N. Comparative efficacy of different herbicides against broadleaved weeds in wheat. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research 2007; 13(3-4): 149-156.
Bhadoria PBS. Allelopathy a natural way towards weed management. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture 2011; 1: 7-20.
Czarnota MA, Paul RN, Dayan FE, Nimbal CI and Weston LA. Mode of action, localization of production, chemical nature and activity of Sorgoleone: a potent PSII inhibitor in sorghum spp. Root exudates. Weed Technology 2001; 15: 813-825. http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/0890-037X(2001)015[0813:MOALOP
Zahoor F, Malik MA, Mehmood K, Rasheed M, Ansar R and Hussain M et al. Optimizing herbicide use in wheat (Triticum aestivum) under rain-fed conditions. African Journal of Agricultural Research 2012; 7(35): 4858-4866. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJAR10.699
Amare T, Sharma JJ and Zewdie K. Effect of weed control methods on weeds and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield. World Journal of Agricultural Research 2014; 2(3): 124-128. http://dx.doi.org/10.12691/wjar-2-3-7
Creamer NG and Baldwin KR. An evaluation of summer cover crops for use in vegetable production systems in north Carolina. Horticultural Science 2000; 35: 600-603.
Hossain MI, Haque ME, Sayre KD, Gupta RK, Talukder SN and Islam MS et al. Herbicidal effect on the growth and yield of wheat. International Journal of Sustainable Crop Production 2009; 4(5): 1-4.
Singh RK, Singh SRK and Gautam US. Weed Control Efficiency of Herbicides in Irrigated Wheat (Triticum aestivum). Indian Research Journal of Extension Education 2013; 13(1): 126-128.
DXT, Tawata S, Khanh TD and Chung IM. Decomposition of allelopathic plants in soil. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 2005; 191: 162-171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-037X.2005.00170.x
Borras L, Slafer GA and Otegui ME. Seed dry weight response to source-sink manipulations in wheat, maize and soybean: a quantitative reappraisal. Field Crop Research 2004; 86: 131-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2003.08.002
Jabran K, Ali A, Sattar A, Ali Z, Yasin M and Hussain M et al. Cultural, mechanical and chemical weed control in wheat. Crop and Environment 2012; 3: 50-53.
Khaliq A, Cheema ZA, Mukhtar MA and Basra SMA. Evaluation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) water extract for weed control in soybean. International Journal Agricultural Biology 1999; 1: 23-26.
Caamal-Maldonado JA, Jimenez-Osornio JJ, Torres- Barragan A and Anaya AL. The use of allelopathic legume cover and mulch species for weed control in cropping systems. Agronomy Journal 2001; 93: 27-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj2001.93127x
Hartwig NL and Ammon HU. Cover crops and living mulches. Weed Science 2002; 50: 688-699. http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/0043-1745(2002)050[0688:AIACCA
Ahmad SA, Cheema ZA and Ahmad R. Evaluation of sorgaab as natural weed inhibitor in maize. Journal of Plant and Animal Science 2000; 10: 141-146.
Iqbal M. Efficacy of herbicides and row spacing on weeds and yield and yield components of wheat. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 2003; 1: 23-41.
Awan FA, Rasheed M, Ashraf M and Khurshid MY. Efficacy of Brasica, Sorghum and Sunflower aqueous extracts to control wheat weeds under rainfed conditions of Pothwar, Pakistan. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 2012; 22(3): 715-721.
Cheema ZA and Khaliq A. Use of sorghum allelopathic properties to control weeds in irrigated wheat in a semi-arid region of Punjab. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 2000; 79: 105-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(99)00140-1
Mushtaq MN, Cheema ZA, Khaliq A and Naveed MR. A 75% Reduction in herbicide use through integration with Sorghum+sunflower extracts for weed management in wheat. Journal of Scientific Food and Agriculture 2010; 90: 1897-1904. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4159
Khalil MF, Hassan G, Ahmad G and Shah NH. Individual and combined effect of different herbicides on weed control in wheat. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research 2008; 14(3-4): 131-139.
Malik MA, Zahoor F, Anser MR, Rasheed M, Aslam U and Mehmood K et al. Weed biomass and economic yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) as influenced by chemical weed control under rainfed conditions. African Journal of Biotechnology 2012; 11(7): 1567-1573.
CIMMYT. From Agronomic data to farmer recommendations: An economics training manual. Completely revised edition. Department of Finance: Mexico 1988.