Comparison of Plant Trait Biometrics for Paired Invasive and Non-Invasive Species to Magnetized Seed and Watering Treatments

Authors

  • Craig L. Ramsey Retired – USDA, Fort Collins, CO, 80526, USA

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-9813.2021.08.3

Keywords:

Redox biology, Invasive species, magnetized seeds, genotype trait responses, magnetized irrigation water

Abstract

A greenhouse study evaluated the widely held hypothesis that invasive plant species have a quicker or stronger response to environmental stimuli such as magnetized irrigation water treatments. A second study objective was to test whether the polarity of magnetized water affected the responses for invasive and non-invasive plant species. Six invasive and six non-invasive plant species were stimulated by magnetizing the seeds followed by applying several magnetized water treatments to the germinated seeds. The species were taxonomically paired then the seeds were exposed to three magnetic field treatments, planted, and irrigated with three magnetized water treatments for approximately two months. The electrical conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), pH of the water, and nine plant biometrics were measured, collected, and analyzed. The study hypothesis was validated when the invasive species showed enhanced responses to the magnetized seed and water treatments. The invasive species had increased growth in seven out of the nine growth biometrics when exposed to the magnetized seed and water treatments. The long exposure time for pretreatment of seeds (six days) and extended exposure time of the water treatments on the magnets (20 h) contributed to the higher growth rates. The average increase in foliar biomass and leaf area for two paired, invasive species was 184 and 182%, respectively, for the combined seed/watering treatments. In comparison the average increase in foliar biomass and leaf area for two paired, non-invasive species was 88 and 111%, respectively, for the combined seed/watering treatments. The physicochemical water properties for the three magnetized water treatments were correlated with plant growth. The combined magnetic seed/watering treatments produced growth rates that substantially exceeded crop growth rates in comparable magnetized irrigation studies.

References

Davidson AM, Jennions M, Nicotra AB. Do invasive species show higher phenotypic plasticity than native species and, if so, is it adaptive? A meta‐analysis. Ecology Letters. 2011; 14(4):419-31. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01596.x

Richards CL, Bossdorf O, Muth NZ, Gurevitch J, Pigliucci M. Jack of all trades, master of some? On the role of phenotypic plasticity in plant invasions. Ecology Letters. 2006; 9(8):981-93. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2006.00950.x

Van Kleunen M, Weber E, Fischer M. A meta‐analysis of trait differences between invasive and non‐invasive plant species. Ecology Letters. 2010; 13(2):235-45. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2009.01418.x

Geng YP, Pan XY, Xu CY, Zhang WJ, Li B, Chen JK, Lu BR, Song ZP. Phenotypic plasticity rather than locally adapted ecotypes allows the invasive alligator weed to colonize a wide range of habitats. Biological Invasions. 2007; 9(3):245-56. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-006- 9029-1

Gratani L. Plant phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental factors. Advances in Botany. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/208747

Maffei ME. Magnetic field effects on plant growth, development, and evolution. Frontiers in plant science. 2014; 4(5):445. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2014.00445

Dhawi F. Why magnetic fields are used to enhance a plant's growth and productivity? Ann Res Rev Biol. 2014; 886-96. https://doi.org/10.9734/ARRB/2014/5983

Zdyrska MM, Kornarzynski K, Pietruszewski S, Gagos M. Stimulation with a 130-mT magnetic field improves growth and biochemical parameters in lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). Turkish J Biol. 2016; 40(3):699-705. https://doi.org/10.3906/biy-1504-19

Suárez Rivero D, Ortíz Aguilar J, Marín Mahecha O, Velásquez Perilla PE, Acevedo Pabón PA, Santis Navarro AM. The effect of magnetic and electromagnetic fields on the morpho-anatomical characteristics of corn (Zea mays) during biomass production. 2016; 50:415-20.

Ali Y, Samaneh R, Kavakebian F. Application of Magnetic Water Technology in Farming and Agriculture Development: A Review of Recent Advances. 2014; 9:695-703. https://doi.org/10.12944/CWE.9.3.18

Chibowski E, Szcześ A. Magnetic water treatment-A review of the latest approaches. Chemosphere. 2018; 1(203):54-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.03.160

Duarte Diaz CE, Riquenes JA, Sotolongo B, Portuondo, MA, Quintana EO, Perez R. Effects of magnetic treatment of irrigation water on the tomato crop. Hortic. Abst. 1997; 69: 494.

Maheshwari BL, Grewal HS. Magnetic treatment of irrigation water: Its effects on vegetable crop yield and water productivity. Ag Water Man. 2009; 96:1229-1236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2009.03.016

Baghel L, Kataria S, Guruprasad KN. Effect of static magnetic field pretreatment on growth, photosynthetic performance and yield of soybean under water stress. Photosynthetica. 2017; (55): 1-13.

Ghanati F, Mohamadalikhani S, Soleimani M, Afzalzadeh R, Hajnorouzi A. Change of growth pattern, metabolism, and quality and quantity of maize plants after irrigation with magnetically treated water. Electromagnetic Biol Med. 2015; 34(3):211-5. https://doi.org/10.3109/15368378.2015.1076453

Hasan MM, Alharby HF, Uddin MN, Ali MA, Anwar Y, Fang XW, Hakeem KR, Alzahrani Y, Hajar AS. Magnetized water confers drought stress tolerance in Moringa biotype via modulation of growth, gas exchange, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 2020; 29(2). https://doi.org/10.15244/pjoes/110347

Yusuf KO, Ogunlela AO. Effects of deficit irrigation on the growth and yield of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) irrigated with magnetized water. Envn. Res. Eng. Mgt. 2017; 73:59-68.

Selim AH, El-Nady MF. Physio-anatomical responses of drought stressed tomato plants to magnetic fields. Acta Astronautica. 2011; 69:387-396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2011.05.025

Mostafazadeh-Fard B, Khoshravesh M, Mousavi F, Kiani AR. Effects of magnetized water and irrigation water salinity on soil moisture in trickle irrigation. J. Irrig. Drainage Eng. 2011; 398-402. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000304

Davis A. Rwls W. The Magnetic Effect. 1999; pp.126.

Davis A. Rawls W. Magnetism and its effects on the living system. 2000; pp. 131.

Philpott WH, Taplin SL. The Biomagnetic Handbook: A Guide to Medical Magnetics: The Energy Medicine of Tomorrow. Enviro-Tech Products. 1990.

Ruzcariccar R, Jerman I, Jegliccar A, Fefer D. Various effects of pulsed and static magnetic fields on the development of Castanea sativa Mill. in tissue culture. Electro-and Magnetobiology. 1993; 12(2):165-77. https://doi.org/10.3109/15368379309012870

Potenza L, Ubaldi L, De Sanctis R, De Bellis R, Cucchiarini L, and Dacha M. Effects of a static magnetic field on cell growth and gene expression in Escherichia coli. Mutation Res. 2004; 561:53-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2004.03.009

Phirke PS, Kubde AB, Umbarkar SP. The influence of magnetic field on plant growth. Seed Sci & Tech. 1996.

Tanaka M, Thanh Van P, Teixeira da Silva JA, Ham LH. Novel magnetic field system: Application to micropropagation of horticultural plants. Biotechnol Biotechnol Eq. 2010; 24:2160-63. https://doi.org/10.2478/V10133-010-0078-3

Thanh PV, Da Silva JAT, Ham LH, Tanaka M. The effects of permanent magnetic fields on in vitro growth of Phalaenopsis plantlets. J. Hort. Sci. Biotech. 2011; 86:473-478. https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2011.11512791

Shim JH, Song JI. Gold Star Co Ltd, assignee. Hexagonal molecular structure water manufacturing apparatus and a method thereof. United States patent US 5,647,974. 1997 Jul 15.

Kim CJ. Kim, Chang Jin, assignee. Apparatus for preparing hexagonal water. United States patent US 6,120,668. 2000 Sep 19.

Cai R, Yang H, He J, Zhu W. The effects of magnetic fields on water molecular hydrogen bonds. J Molecular Structure. 2009; (1-3):15-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2009.08.037

Johansson B, Sukhotskaya S. Allometric scaling behavior-a quantum dissipative state implies a reduction in thermal infrared emission and fractal ordering in distilled coherent water. Water. 2012; 3:100-21.

Binhi VN. Theoretical concepts in Magnetobiology. Electro-and Magnetobiology. 2001; 20(1):43-58. https://doi.org/10.1081/JBC- 100103159

Barnes FS and Greenebaum B. The effects of weak magnetic fields on radical pairs. Bioelectromagnetics. 2015; (1):45-54. https://doi.org/10.1002/bem.21883

Belyavskaya NA. Biological effects due to weak magnetic field on plants. Advances Space Res. 2004; 34(7):1566-74. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.asr.2004.01.021

Ibrahim IH. Biophysical properties of magnetized distilled water. Egypt J. Sol. 2006; 29(2):363-9. https://doi.org/ 10.21608/ejs.2006.149287

Marais A, Sinayskiy I, Petruccione F, Van Grondelle R. A quantum protective mechanism in photosynthesis. Scientific Reports. 2015; 5:8720. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep08720

Hakala‐Yatkin M, Sarvikas P, Paturi P, Mäntysaari M, Mattila H, Tyystjärvi T, Nedbal L, Tyystjärvi E. Magnetic field protects plants against high light by slowing down production of singlet oxygen. Physiologia plantarum. 2011; 142(1):26-34. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399- 3054.2011.01453.x

Hansen MJ, Pedersen JB. An analytic description of the influence of rf-magnetic fields on radical pair reactions in a strong static field. Chem Phys. 2006; 326(2-3):563-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemphys.2006.03.019

Wang K, Ritz T. Zeeman resonances for radical-pair reactions in weak static magnetic fields. Molecular Physics. 2006; 104(10-11):1649- 58. https://doi.org/10.1080/00268970600564869

Szcześ A, Chibowski E, Hołysz L, Rafalski P. Effects of static magnetic field on water at kinetic condition. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification. 2011; 1:124-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2010.12.005

Wang Y, Zhang B, Gong Z, Gao K, Ou Y, Zhang J. The effect of a static magnetic field on the hydrogen bonding in water using frictional experiments. J Molecular Structure. 2013; 1052:102-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2013.08.021

Wang Y, Wei H, Li Z. Effect of magnetic field on the physical properties of water. Results in Physics. 2018; 8:262-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rinp.2017.12.022

Yin J, Zhang JK, Wu L, Li X. Influence of water physical and chemical performance by magnetizing. Advanced Materials Research 2011; 281:223-227. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.281.223

Sivachandiran L, Khacef A. Enhanced seed germination and plant growth by atmospheric pressure cold air plasma: combined effect of seed and water treatment. RSC advances. 2017; 7(4):1822-32. https://doi.org/10.1039/C6RA24762H

Abul Kalam Azad MD, Ishikawa K. Effects of various water on early growth in komatsuna seedlings. InInternational Symposium on Managing Greenhouse Crops in Saline Environment. 2003; pp.487-492. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2003.609.75

Park DP, Davis K, Gilani S, Alonzo CA, Dobrynin D, Friedman G, Fridman A, Rabinovich A, Fridman G. Reactive nitrogen species produced in water by non-equilibrium plasma increase plant growth rate and nutritional yield. Current Applied Physics. 2013; 20(13):19-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cap.2012.12.019

Hassan SM, Ridzwan AR, Madlul NS, Umoruddin NA. Exposure effect of magnetic field on water properties in recirculation aquaculture systems (Ras). Iraqi J Agricultural Science. 2018; 49(6):1018. https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v49i6.138

Higashitani K, Oshitani J, Ohmura N. Effects of magnetic field on water investigated with fluorescent probes, Colloids Surfaces. Physicochem Eng Asp. 1996; 109:167-173. https://doi.org/10.1016/0927-7757(95)03483-8

Nasher SH. The effect of magnetic water on growth of chick-pea seeds. Eng and Tech. 2008; 26(9).

Mashhour S, Abd-Elhady ES. Effect of magnetized irrigation water and seeds on some water properties, growth parameter and yield productivity of cucumber plants. Current Sci. Int. 2016; 05:152-164.

Abedinpour M, Rohani E. Effects of magnetized water application on soil and maize growth indices under different amounts of salt in the water. J.Water Reuse and Desalination. 2017; 7:319-325. https://doi.org/10.2166/wrd.2016.216

Hasan MM, Alharby H, Hajar A, Hakeem KR. Leaf gas exchange, Fv/Fm ratio, ion content and growth conditions of the two Moringa species under magnetic water treatment. Pak. J. Bot. 2017; 49:921-928.

Surendran U, Sandeep O, Joseph EJ. The impacts of magnetic treatment of irrigation water on plant, water, and soil characteristics. Ag. Water Mgt. 2016; 178:21-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2016.08.016

Amor HB, Elaoud A, Hozayn M. Does magnetic field change water pH?. Asian Research Journal of Agriculture. 2018 Feb 6:1-7. https://doi.org/10.9734/ARJA/2018/39196

Yin J, Zhang JK, Wu L, Li X. Influence of water physical and chemical performance by magnetizing. Advanced Materials Research 2011; (281):223-227. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.281.223

Yamashita M, Duffield C, Tiller WA. Direct Current Magnetic Field and Electromagnetic Field Effects on the pH and Oxidation− Reduction Potential Equilibration Rates of Water. 1. Purified Water. Langmuir. 2003; 19(17):6851-6. https://doi.org/10.1021/la034506h

Azad MA, Ishikawa K. Treatments of different water using natural minerals and its influence on early plant growth, Komatsuna (Brassica rapa L.). Environment Control in Biology. 2003; 41(4):311-9. https://doi.org/10.2525/ecb1963.41.311

Nobuo A, Katayose M, Yoshida K, Saito Y, Kusakari S, Abe K. Spray application of electrolyzed acidic and alkaline water on leeks for reduction of viable bacteria and growth promotion. Food Preservation Science. 2005; 31(1):15-9. https://doi.org/10.5891/jafps.31.15

Kadhim KN, Al-Rufaye AH. Experimental Study of Magnetization Effect on Ground Water Properties. Jordan J Civil Engineering. 2018; 12(2).

Chang KT, Weng CI. The effect of an external magnetic field on the structure of liquid water using molecular dynamics simulation. Journal of Applied physics. 2006; 100(4):043917. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2335971

Voeikov V. Reactive oxygen species, water, photons and life. In Biology Forum. Rivista di Biologia 2010; (103).

Voeikov VL. Key role of stable nonequilibrium state of aqueous systems in bioenergetics. Russian J General Chemistry. 2011; 81(1):209- 19. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1070363211010385

Voeikov VL, Del Giudice E. Water respiration-the basis of the living state. Water. 2009; 1:52-75.

Pang X, Deng B. Investigation of changes in properties of water under the action of a magnetic field. Science in China Series G: Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy. 2008 Nov 1;51(11):1621-32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11433-008-0182-7

Messori C, Prinzera SV, di Bardone FB. Deep into the water: exploring the hydro-electromagnetic and quantum-electrodynamic properties of interfacial water in living systems. Open Access Library Journal. 2019;6(05):1. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1105435

Davidson RM, Lauritzen A, Seneff S. Biological water dynamics and entropy: a biophysical origin of cancer and other diseases. Entropy. 2013; 15(9):3822-76. https://doi.org/10.3390/e15093822

Ho MW. Water is the means, medium and message of life. International J Design & Nature and Ecodynamics. 2014; 9(1):1-2. https://doi.org/10.2495/DNE-V9-N1-1-12

Voeikov VL. Fundamental role of water in bioenergetics. In Biophotonics and Coherent Systems in Biology 2007 (pp. 89-104). Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-28417-0_7

Martin WJ. KELEA activated water leading to improved quantity & quality of agricultural crops. Advances in Plants & Agriculture Research. 2014;2(1):00033. https://doi.org/10.15406/apar.2015.02.00033

Dubey PK. Structured water: an exciting new field in water science. International Journal of Agriculture Sciences, ISSN. 2018:0975-3710.

Borges FR, Viana TV, Marinho AB, Pinheiro Neto LG, Azevedo BM. Gas exchange and leaf contents in bell pepper under energized water and biofertilizer doses. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental. 2016 Jun;20(6):533-8. https://doi.org/10.1590/1807- 1929/agriambi.v20n6p533-538

Holster A. Effects of Vi~ Aqua on Revival of Wilted Flowers. 2015; http://www.ourwaterrecord.org.nz/uploads/7/7/3/9/77392778/ effects_of_vi_aqua_on_revival_of_wilted_flowers.pdf

Ptok F. Alternative Irrigation Methods: Structured Water in the context of a Growing Global Food Crisis due to Water Shortages. Undergraduate Honors Theses. 2014; 182.

Korotkov K. Study of structured water and its biological effects. 2019a. https://www.bio-well.com/assets/files/papers/Water%20Oils/ 2019_IJCAM-12-00468.pdf

Johansson B. Effects of functional water on heart rate, heart rate variability, and salivary immunoglobulin A in healthy humans: A pilot study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2009; 15(8):871-7. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2008.0336

Korotkov KG, Churganov OA, Gavrilova EA. Influence of drinking structured water to human psychophysiology. J Appl Biotechnol Bioeng. 2019b; 6(4):171-7. https://doi.org/10.15406/jabb.2019.06.00190

Ignatov I, Mosin OV, Velikov B, Bauer E, Tyminski G. Research of Longevity Factors and Mountain Water as a Factor in Teteven, Yablanitsa and Ugarchin Municipalities, Lovech Region, Bulgaria. J Health, Med and Nur. 2014; 4:21-36. https://doi.org/ 10.13187/ejmb.2014.4.52

Ignatov I, Toshkova R, Gluhchev G, Drossinakis C. Results of Blood Serum from Cancer Treated Hamsters with Infrared Thermal Field and Electromagnetic Fields. Journal of Health, Medicine and Nursing. 2019; 58:101-12.

Ignatov I, Mosin O, Kirov P. Mathematical Model of Kangen Water®. Biophysical and Biochemical Effects of Catholyte. Advances in Physics Theories and Applications. 2016;51(1):33-55.

Matsiyevska O. Influence of redox potential of different water quality on the human blood. Ecology and Environmental Technology. 2017(1 (3)):34-8. https://doi.org/10.15587/2312-8372.2017.93633

Jhon MS. The water puzzle and the hexagonal key. Amerika, Uplifting. 2004.

Hatem MW, Shukri HM, Rasheed KA, Nawar MH, Hasan SM, Adnan R. The Effect of Magnetically Treated Water Against Fusarium Wilt Disease in Tomato Caused by the Fungus Fusarium oxysporumand and Its Effect on Production Under Fertilized Farming Conditions. Plant Archives. 2020; 20(1):533-6.

Trebbi G, Borghini F, Lazzarato L, Torrigiani P, Calzoni GL, Betti L. Extremely low frequency weak magnetic fields enhance resistance of NN tobacco plants to tobacco mosaic virus and elicit stress‐related biochemical activities. Bioelectromagnetics. 2007; 28(3):214-23. https://doi.org/10.1002/bem.20296

Hassan M, Khalil M, Mahmoud A, Morsy K. Effect of Water and Seeds Magnetization on Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Faba Bean. Egyptian J Phytopathology. 2017; 45(2):199-217. https://doi.org/10.21608/ejp.2017.88612

Downloads

Published

2021-06-15

How to Cite

1.
Craig L. Ramsey. Comparison of Plant Trait Biometrics for Paired Invasive and Non-Invasive Species to Magnetized Seed and Watering Treatments . Glob. J. Agric. Innov. Res. Dev [Internet]. 2021Jun.15 [cited 2021Oct.16];8:32-48. Available from: https://www.avantipublishers.com/jms/index.php/gjaird/article/view/1032

Issue

Section

Articles