For countries like Uganda where organic waste composition accounts for at least 70% of the solid waste generated, collected, and disposed of at landfills and dumpsites, recovery of resources from the waste stream is crucial. This is because disposal of the waste in the landfills/dump sites exerts more pressure on land as a resource in addition to the environmental negative impacts associated with the degradation of the waste in the landfills, pollution of groundwater from leachate, generation of greenhouses gases, bad odor, and poor aesthetics. Moreover, given that the country also grapples with sewage and faecal sludge treatment and management due to the limited plants in place, alternative Waste-to-Use systems that promote resource recovery and management of various organic waste streams such as biowaste, animal manure, sewage/faecal sludge and wastewater could be a viable solution. The systems which consist of a combination of various technologies such as anaerobic digestion, incineration, landfilling, composting, and pyrolysis to produce briquettes boast of managing various organic waste streams and potential for application in various entities such as housing estates, towns/cities, at institutions. To assess the sustainability of such systems, multicriteria decision analysis was used. The results indicated that if trade-off of any aspect was considered i.e., technical, environmental, social, and financial, the Waste-to-Use systems were preferred i.e., a system consisting of composting and anaerobic digestion technologies. Also, a sustainability framework for the assessment of similar systems was proposed and it highlights the importance of involving stakeholders through the various stages such as, situation analysis, problem identification and definition, criteria and indictor selection, elicitation of scores and weight so that transparency in decision making can be boosted.
Polaris. Waste management market share, size, trends, industry analysis report, by type (municipal waste, industrial waste); by services; by end-user; by region; segment forecast, 2022 - 2030. 2021.
Cleland J, Machiyama K. The challenges posed by demographic change in sub-saharan Africa: A concise overview. JSTOR 2017; 43: 264-86. https://doi.org/10.1111/padr.170
NDP. Third National Development Plan (NDP III) 2020/21-2024/25. Repulic of Uganda 2020.
KWM. Preliminary information memorandum; Kampala waste PPP project innovation shaping waste management in Uganda 2020.
WorldBank. What A Waste 2.0; A Global Snapshort of Solid Waste Management to 2050. Washington: 2018.
Komakech AJ, Banadda NE, Kinobe JR, Kasisira L, Sundberg C, Gebresenbet G, et al. Characterization of municipal waste in Kampala, Uganda. J Air Waste Manage Assoc. 2014; 64: 340-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2013.861373
Schoebitz L, Niwagaba CB, Strande L. SFD Report - Kampala, Uganda - SFD Promotion Initiative. Eawag/Sandec; 06.06.2016; pp. 1-45.
MoWE. Water and Environment Sector Performance Report 2020. Ministry Of Water and Environment; Kampala: 2020.
Andersson K, Rosemarin A, Lamizana B, Kvarnström E, McConville J, Seidu R, et al. Sanitation, wastewater management and sustainability: From waste disposal to resource recovery. 2nd ed. Nairobi and Stockholm: United Nations Environment Programme and Stockholm Environment Institute; 2021.
Tan ST, Ho WS, Hashim H, Lee CT, Taib MR, Ho CS. Energy, economic and environmental (3E) analysis of waste-to-energy (WTE) strategies for municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Malaysia. Energy Convers Manag. 2015; 102: 111-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2015.02.010
Lüthi C. Rethinking sustainable sanitation for the urban environment. Sustainable Sanitation Alliance, Amsterdam/Delft 2009.
Fernández-González JM, Grindlay AL, Serrano-Bernardo F, Rodríguez-Rojas MI, Zamorano M. Economic and environmental review of Waste-to-Energy systems for municipal solid waste management in medium and small municipalities. Waste Manag. 2017; 67: 360-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2017.05.003
Joseph LP, Prasad R. Assessing the sustainable municipal solid waste (MSW) to electricity generation potentials in selected Pacific Small Island Developing States (PSIDS). J Clean Prod. 2019; 248: 119222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.119222
Agunyo MF, Born J, Wozei E, Moeller B. Exploring the environmental feasibility of integrated sanitation systems for uganda. J Sustain Dev Energy Water Environ Sys. 2019; 7: 28-43. https://doi.org/10.13044/j.sdewes.d6.0217
Agunyo MF, Kizza-Nkambwe S, Bacwayo KE. Assessing the economic feasibility of integrated waste to use systems for uganda. Glob Environ Eng. 2021; 8: 27-45. https://doi.org/10.15377/2410-3624.2021.08.3
Babalola MA. A multi-criteria decision analysis of waste treatment options for food and biodegradable waste management in Japan. Environments. 2015; 2: 471-88. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments2040471
Ali Y, Aslam Z, Dar HS, Mumtaz U. A multi-criteria decision analysis of solid waste treatment options in pakistan: lahore city—a case in point. Environ Syst Decis. 2018; 38: 528-43. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10669-018-9672-y
Coban A, Ertis IF, Cavdaroglu NA. Municipal solid waste management via multi-criteria decision making methods: A case study in Istanbul, Turkey. J Clean Prod. 2018; 180: 159-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.01.130
Hoang GM, Fujiwara T, Pham Phu TS, Nguyen LD. Sustainable solid waste management system using multi-objective decision-making model: a method for maximizing social acceptance in Hoi An city, Vietnam. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2018; 26: 34137-47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3498-5
Khan I, Kabir Z. Waste-to-energy generation technologies and the developing economies: A multi-criteria analysis for sustainability assessment. Renew Energy. 2019; 150: 320-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.12.132
Vlachokostas C, Michailidou AV, Achillas C. Multi-criteria decision analysis towards promoting waste-to-energy management strategies: A critical review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2020; 138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2020.110563
Zabaleta I, Mertenat A, Scholten L, Zurbrügg C. Selecting organic waste treatment technologies. EAWAG 2020.
Nayono S. Development of a sustainability-based sanitation planning tool (SusTA) for developing countries. Universitätsbibliothek Weima 2014.
Iacovidou E, Voulvoulis N. A multi-criteria sustainability assessment framework: development and application in comparing two food waste management options using a UK region as a case study. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2018; 25: 35821-34. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2479-z
Ferrer-Martí L, Ferrer I, Sánchez E, Garfí M. A multi-criteria decision support tool for the assessment of household biogas digester programmes in rural areas. A case study in Peru. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2018; 95: 74-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.06.064
Buuren J v. SANitation CHoice Involving Stakeholders: a participatory multi-criteria method for drainage and sanitation system selection in developing cities applied in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Wagenigen University; 2010.
Agunyo MF, Bacwayo KE, Nkambwe SK. Assessment of the socio-cultural viability of integrated waste-to-energy systems for Uganda. Int J Renew Energy Technol. 2020; 11: 272-94. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJRET.2020.112009
Strande L, Ronteltap M, Brdjanovic D. Faecal sludge management: systems approach for implementation and operation. IWA Publishing; 2014. https://doi.org/10.2166/9781780404738
Yatsalo B, Didenko V, Gritsyuk S, Sullivan T. Decerns: A framework for multi-criteria decision analysis. Int J Comput Intell Sys. 2015; 8: 467. https://doi.org/10.1080/18756891.2015.1023586
Keeney RL. Value-focused thinking: a path to creative decisionmaking. Harvard University Press; 1996; p. 416.
Belton V, Stewart TJ. Multiple criteria decision analysis: an integrated approach, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2001, p. 331-43. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-1495-4_11
Kopfmüller J. Nachhaltige Entwicklung integrativ betrachtet -Konstitutive elemente, regeln, lndikatoren 2001.
Lahdelma R, Salminen P, Hokkanen J. Using multicriteria methods in environmental planning and management. Environ Manage. 2000; 26: 595-605. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002670010118
Vicky M, Beattie M. A practical guide to multi-criteria decision analysis: A workbook companion to V•I•S•A 2006.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2022 Miria Frances Agunyo